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Weimar Republic


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From democracy to Nazism.

Weimar Republic

  1. 1. The Weimar Republic From Democracy to Nazism
  2. 2. End of WWI (1918-19) <ul><li>March - Germany offensive </li></ul><ul><li>July - Allies stop German offensive </li></ul><ul><li>November - Imperial fleet mutinies, Kaiser abdicates, Republic formed </li></ul><ul><li>November - Armistice signed by civilian leaders (recommended by military) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Brutal terms for Germans </li></ul><ul><li>$33 billion in reparations over 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Article 231 (“war guilt” clause) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany loses land to France, Poland, all of colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited to have offensive military </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stab in the Back” - Military </li></ul>
  4. 5. Weimar Constitution <ul><li>President elected popularly </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor appointed by President </li></ul><ul><li>Legislators elected through proportional representation to Reichstag </li></ul><ul><li>Article 48 - Temporary dictatorship to solve crises </li></ul>
  5. 6. Weimar Culture <ul><li>Berlin became center of European culture </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives opposed changes </li></ul><ul><li>All Quiet caused mass protests </li></ul>
  6. 7. Early 1920’s <ul><li>Far-left and right groups fight for control </li></ul><ul><li>1922 - Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch </li></ul><ul><li>1923 - French occupy Ruhr (industrial heartland) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinflation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed allies, reparations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Hyperinflation - 1923
  8. 9. Hyperinflation <ul><li>Most workers were paid daily and given time to shop before the value of their wages fell further. </li></ul><ul><li>Depositors received letters from their banks informing them their life savings were worth less then the administrative costs of maintaining their accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>Young women who had been setting aside money for their dowries saw their savings evaporate, thus making a traditional German marriage impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>A concert pianist would be paid with a suitcase of bills for his performance and exchange half of the bills for several sausages. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hyperinflation
  10. 11. Hyperinflation
  11. 12. Hyperinflation
  12. 13. Hyperinflation
  13. 14. Late 1920’s <ul><li>Hyperinflation recovery based upon American loans </li></ul><ul><li>1929 Stock Market crash, Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes raised, wages and social programs cut </li></ul><ul><li>6 million unemployed workers </li></ul>
  14. 15. Political Crisis <ul><li>Coalitions collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Parties unwilling to compromise </li></ul><ul><li>President Hindenburg and Article 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Extremists gain power </li></ul><ul><li>Paramilitary groups roam, dominate cities </li></ul>
  15. 16. 1932 <ul><li>Four parties vying for power </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis receive 37% of vote - 2nd </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler demands to be appointed Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>President Hindenburg believes it would keep him in check </li></ul>
  16. 18. 1933-34 <ul><li>Feb. 1933, Reichstag burned </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidates power </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis gain control </li></ul><ul><li>Hindenburg dies </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler declares himself Fuhrer </li></ul>
  17. 19. &quot;Comrades, we stand firmly together for Germany, and we must stand firmly together for Germany. I am handing you the new insignia, knowing I place it in the most loyal hands in Germany. In the past you have proven your loyalty to me a thousand times. In the future it cannot and will not be any different!&quot;