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The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires AP World History West Hills High School
Overview <ul><li>Rise of Ottomans and Mughal Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Big Question...
Rise of Mughal India <ul><li>Rise of power swift, easily conquered and controlled Northern India. (map) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Mughal Military Power <ul><li>Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms purchased from Europe...
Mughal Decline <ul><li>Public works (including the Taj Mahal) drain budgets </li></ul>
Mughal Decline <ul><li>Wars  to conquer Southern India depleted reserves, distracted emperor from internal problems (upris...
Mughal Decline <ul><li>Repressive tax system, with few benefits seen by poor </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive bureaucracy allow...
Ottoman Rise <ul><li>Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Cavalry, Jannisaries dominate </li></ul><...
Ottoman Military Might <ul><li>Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Initial...
400 Years of Decline <ul><li>Military victories bring about decline, how? </li></ul><ul><li>Had to constantly guard gains ...
 
400 Years of Decline <ul><li>Conservative Islam focused on tradition, spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Turks did not have th...
Land-Based Empires <ul><li>Focus on self-defense </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural base, not industrialization </li></ul><ul>...
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Gunpowder Empires

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The Mughals and Ottomans

Gunpowder Empires

  1. 1. The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires AP World History West Hills High School
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Rise of Ottomans and Mughal Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Big Question: What accounts for the rise of the Gunpowder Empires and why aren’t they able to keep pace with Europe? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rise of Mughal India <ul><li>Rise of power swift, easily conquered and controlled Northern India. (map) </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar solidified power, made social changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a new religion with elements of Hinduism and Islam - unsuccessful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated jizya tax on Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed Hindus to build temples again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted Hindus in the gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed Sati, discouraged child marriage </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mughal Military Power <ul><li>Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms purchased from Europeans, limited local production </li></ul><ul><li>Troops poorly trained – conscripted from poor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mughal Decline <ul><li>Public works (including the Taj Mahal) drain budgets </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mughal Decline <ul><li>Wars to conquer Southern India depleted reserves, distracted emperor from internal problems (uprisings and revolts), and incursions from Persian and Afghan warriors bands </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mughal Decline <ul><li>Repressive tax system, with few benefits seen by poor </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive bureaucracy allowed large scale corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Later emperors refused to integrate Hindus into the gov’t (80% of population) </li></ul><ul><li>Military technology unable to match European development – modernization plan – Why? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ottoman Rise <ul><li>Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Cavalry, Jannisaries dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Conquer Constantinople, make it their capital </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the “terror of Europe” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ottoman Military Might <ul><li>Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Initially they had superior technology </li></ul><ul><li>15th Century - Build navy to ward off Europeans, gain control of Mediterranean (Significance?) </li></ul>
  10. 10. 400 Years of Decline <ul><li>Military victories bring about decline, how? </li></ul><ul><li>Had to constantly guard gains </li></ul>
  11. 12. 400 Years of Decline <ul><li>Conservative Islam focused on tradition, spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Turks did not have the resources, forethought to modernize army </li></ul><ul><li>Trade imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class heavily taxed (why relevant?) </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous ineffective leaders </li></ul>
  12. 13. Land-Based Empires <ul><li>Focus on self-defense </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural base, not industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized power </li></ul><ul><li>Large land masses </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by large administrative and economic systems </li></ul>
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The Mughals and Ottomans

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