China Cold War

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China Cold War

  1. 1. Cold War and China
  2. 2. End WWII <ul><li>Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany handled differently after WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potsdam Conference : Germany to be divided and occupied by Allied powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USSR wants to rebuild economy using German resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US/UK want to de-Nazify Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuremberg Trials : Bring Nazis, collaborators to justice </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. End WWII <ul><li>Asia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Atomic Bomb in Hiroshima, Nagasaki ended war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor loses god-like status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US occupies Japan, Gen. MacArthur oversees writing of Japan’s constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan demilitarized </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cold War <ul><li>US use of atomic bombs leads to USSR to finish developing their own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arms Race : US & USSR begin amassing arsenals of atomic weaponry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Winter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is a “Cold War?” <ul><li>A state of economic , diplomatic , and ideological discord among nations without armed conflict after World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>But, no direct fighting (“hot war”) between superpowers </li></ul><ul><li>US encouraged to be active in fighting spread of Communism in Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech </li></ul>
  6. 6. Divergent Strategies <ul><li>US & USSR = New Superpowers </li></ul><ul><li>US: Containment! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Communism from spreading to other parts of world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine : Provide $ support to bankrupt European countries that refuse Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USSR: Expansion! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use superpower status to achieve vision of worldwide Communist revolution </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Alliance Systems <ul><li>NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): US and West European allies provide support to protect from Soviet aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR and satellite states in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Notable Dramas <ul><li>Berlin Airlift (1948): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR tried to squeeze out Allies from West Berlin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies flown in by cargo jets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U2 Incident (1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US spy plane shot down over USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US denied these flights were happening, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, captured US pilot and plane wreckage said otherwise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis (1963): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US found that USSR was shipping nuclear missiles to bases in Fidel Castro’s Communist Cuba (90 mi from Florida) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost led to war, but USSR “blinked” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Other Manifestations of Cold War <ul><li>Civil War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US-backed nationalists vs. Communists in Korea, Vietnam, China, Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support of Dictatorships: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samoza in Nicaragua, Pinochet in Chile, Mobutu in Zaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investment in Countries with Strategic Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt- Suez Canal, Middle East, Turkey, Greece- Bosporus/Dardanelles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict in Middle East: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US support of Shah in Iran, weapons to Iran & Iraq during Iran/Iraq War, Supporting fundamentalist Muslims against USSR </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. End of Cold War <ul><li>US outspent USSR on Defense! (Hooray Deficit Spending!) </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachev attempted to reform USSR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perestroika : Restructure economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glastnost : Speak openly to overhaul the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still, did not mean to eliminate Communism! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, it did! </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. China <ul><li>Civil War: </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) and the Nationalists vs. Mao Zedong and the Communists </li></ul><ul><li>1949: Communists Won </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported and respected the Peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long March was major inspirational events </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Mao’s Policies <ul><li>Think about Totalitarianism and Stalin: </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leap Forward: </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivized Farms </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots Steel Production </li></ul><ul><li>“ Permanent Revolution” elements </li></ul><ul><li>5-Year Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Failed miserably - millions died </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mao’s Policies <ul><li>Cultural Revolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Mao looked to get rid of “4 olds” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of anything “old” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young People (Red Guards) to carry it out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led China to near-anarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao Died </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Deng Xiaoping <ul><li>Cleaned up Mao’s messes </li></ul><ul><li>“To Get Rich is Glorious:” Encouraged capitalism to get economy on track, but NO political reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square (1989): Democracy protests crushed by government. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cold War & China Practice Questions
  16. 16. <ul><li>Who was the founder of Communist China? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiang kai-Shek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jiang Jieshi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deng Xiaoping </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Which of the following was a Warsaw Pact Nation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Which of the following plans dealt with post-War Germany? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potsdam Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Airlift </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Which of the following was a primary cause of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A competition for political influence over other countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct, armed conflict between the two nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A deep reduction in military expenditures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The founding of the United Nations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>US intervention in Vietnam came as a result the Cold War policy of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Détente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brinkmanship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeasement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>NATO was created in order to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop goodwill between Eastern and Western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage diplomatic solutions to regional problems in North Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate regional economic development in North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a unified military defense between the US and Western Europe </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Which of the following was China’s attempt to quickly industrialize? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Leap Forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Long March </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Which of the following nations did NOT end up with a Communist government during the Cold War? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chile </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Which Chinese religion/philosophy would most strongly encourage respect of parents? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Answers <ul><li>1-c </li></ul><ul><li>2-c </li></ul><ul><li>3-b </li></ul><ul><li>4-a </li></ul><ul><li>5-d </li></ul><ul><li>6-d </li></ul><ul><li>7-b </li></ul><ul><li>8-d </li></ul><ul><li>9-c </li></ul>

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