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Primate Sanctuary Anmal Welfare

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This presentation was made for the AVMA meeting in 2008. Since then TAOS has become part of a new Global Fund for Animal Sanctuaries (GFAS).

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Primate Sanctuary Anmal Welfare

  1. 1. Diane E. McClure, DVM, PhD, DACLAM ARCVetServices.com
  2. 2. Nonhuman Primates: Animal Sanctuaries, Who Is Monitoring the Animal’s Welfare?
  3. 3. What is a sanctuary? a refuge a shelter from danger or hardship
  4. 4. Why do we need a sanctuary for apes and monkeys? <ul><li>No longer wanted/needed </li></ul><ul><li>Costly to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous to maintain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>How many non-human privates are in captivity in the US is UNKNOWN
  7. 7. Where are the Non-Human Primates before they need refuge? <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical Research </li></ul>Each of these have different options. How many non-human privates are in captivity in the US is UNKNOWN
  8. 8. The fundamental decision: Who should I give this animal to and how much can I invest while making this decision?
  9. 9. What to do with a pet monkey? <ul><li>New pet owner </li></ul><ul><li>Local animal control or animal shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia </li></ul><ul><li>Zoo </li></ul><ul><li>An animal sanctuary </li></ul>
  10. 10. Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions </li></ul><ul><li>AAALAC accredited institutions </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Registered Exhibitors or Research Facilities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Institution Options <ul><li>American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited zoos </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) assured institutions </li></ul><ul><li>AAALAC accredited institutions </li></ul><ul><li>USDA Registered Exhibitors or Research Facilities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Private Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>USDA is optional! </li></ul><ul><li>American Sanctuary Association – ASA http://www.asaanimalsanctuaries.org </li></ul><ul><li>The Association of Sanctuaries - TAOS http://www.taosanctuaries.org </li></ul>
  13. 13. ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Rigorous standards of sanctuary management and animal care </li></ul><ul><li>No breeding (Exceptions may be made when an animal's species is on the verge of extinction and a scientifically-based breeding and reintroduction plan is in place.) </li></ul><ul><li>No commercial use of the animals </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime responsibility </li></ul>
  14. 14. ASA “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Welfare of animals is always primary and that respectful collaboration with others on behalf of that welfare is obligatory. This not only best serves the animals but further demonstrates the fundamental value of respect for all life that is at the foundation of sanctuary existence. </li></ul>
  15. 15. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To combine forces in cooperative efforts to rescue and place animals in the best possible environment for the individual animal. </li></ul><ul><li>To strive to achieve and maintain high standards of animal care through continuing education and an understanding of the sanctuary field and its challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge limitations when appropriate and enlist the assistance of veterinarians, TAOS, or other supporting organizations and professionals as needed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To strive to keep animals in as natural, spacious, and enriched a setting as possible and that will exceed minimum conceptions of their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal animal care shall come before personal gain and the needs of the animals before one's own emotional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>To strive to provide professional and humane care through all phases of an animal's life and to provide for the dignity of each animal. </li></ul><ul><li>In providing for the well-being of individual animals, to consider the impact on the sanctuaries' larger community of animals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. TAOS: Responsibility Toward Animals <ul><li>To provide for both individual and social needs of animals in enclosure construction, animal placement, and care practices. </li></ul><ul><li>To be aware of normal behavioral characteristics of all species held and to take appropriate steps to correct problems leading to abnormal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>To recognize when an animal's quality of life and prognosis are such as to indicate euthanasia as the potentially preferred option for the good of the animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities and animal care practices shall be maintained in accord with TAOS guidelines. </li></ul>
  18. 18. TAOS “Code of Ethics” <ul><li>Responsibility Toward Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities to Sanctuary Field & Other Social Change Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities to Society </li></ul>
  19. 19. Association Accredited Sanctuaries “ 6”
  20. 20. More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Humane Society of the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer list primate sanctuaries on their website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on stopping the problem of unwanted pet primates by endorsing legislation to eliminate monkeys as pets. Captive Primate Safety Act (S. 1498) would amend the Lacey Act to prohibit interstate and foreign trade of nonhuman primates. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. More Sanctuaries? <ul><li>Allied Effort to Save Other Primates: AESOP-Project Links to Primate Sanctuaries World Wide – www.aesop-project.org </li></ul>
  22. 22. So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>State Agencies such as the Department of Fish and Game or the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily permits to own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May address housing and husbandry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local county or city ordinances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety (dangerous animals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cruelty infractions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. So who’s left to provide oversight? <ul><li>Unless allegations of animal cruelty are made by the public, there may not be any outside oversight at all </li></ul>
  24. 24. Non-Profit/Private Non-Human Primate Sanctuary Oversight <ul><li>Board </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctuary Management </li></ul>** Primary Animal Welfare Oversight lies right here!
  25. 25. So who are these sanctuary people? Why should we trust them with the oversight of animal welfare in non-human primate sanctuaries?
  26. 26. Primate Rescue Center - April Truitt
  27. 27. <ul><li>1987 Clay Miller saw an ad in USA Today </li></ul><ul><li>Gizmo, crab eating macaque as a gift for April Truitt </li></ul><ul><li>needed a friend </li></ul><ul><li>A research lab called to retire a few animals </li></ul><ul><li>A National humane organization needed to place two confiscated monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>An owner who was badly injured needed someone to take his pet </li></ul><ul><li>50+ and 11 chimpanzees </li></ul>www.primaterescue.org
  28. 28. 1996 - The Dahlonega Five
  29. 29. <ul><li>Dahlonega 5 - Georgia Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>LEMSIP Kids </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated as a group </li></ul><ul><li>USDA inspected by choice </li></ul>
  30. 30. Patti Ragan’s Center for Great Apes www.prime-apes.org Pongo Butch
  31. 31. Orangutan Facilities
  32. 32. Orangutan Facilities
  33. 33. Boswell Walk-About Chute System
  34. 34. Arcus Great Ape Health Center
  35. 35. Evaluating Animal Welfare at Primate Sanctuaries <ul><li>Does the sanctuary apply Accreditation Association Code of Ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>What standards of care are in place? </li></ul><ul><li>What veterinary care is being provided? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the motivations of the individuals running the sanctuaries? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they exhibiting signs of the “animal collector” pathology? </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen to the sanctuary if the primary owner or the primary director becomes incapacitated? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Animal Welfare Oversight at Primate Sanctuaries Summary: <ul><li>We do not always have the comfort of outside regulatory oversight like the USDA. </li></ul><ul><li>We rely on the integrity and judgment of the individuals responsible for overseeing the care at each sanctuary. </li></ul><ul><li>The only other ones watching are US! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Thank you

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