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1. chapter 1 part 1 introduction to iwrm


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1. chapter 1 part 1 introduction to iwrm

  1. 1. Economic and Financial Instruments for IWRM Introduction to IWRM Part 1: Discovering IWRM
  2. 2. Goal and objectives of the session  To introduce the importance of water  To give an indication of the water crisis  To present the challenge in resolving the crisis  To define IWRM  To introduce the importance of a water management framework
  3. 3. Outline presentation  Overview of the importance of water  Water crisis: Facts  Challenges in addressing crisis  What is IWRM  Water management framework and core elements  Benefits of the framework
  4. 4. Introduction The Importance of Water  Water is essential to human survival (20-40 litres per person daily)  Effective primary health care  Fight poverty, hunger, child mortality, gender inequality and environmental damage.  Millennium Development Goals
  5. 5. Facts on Water Crisis  More than 2 billion people suffer from water shortages in over 40 countries;  1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water;  4 out of 10 people in the world do not have access to improved sanitation (very basic facilities);  2 million tonnes per day of human waste is discharged into water courses;  Every year 1.6 million children below 5 years old die because of unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation.
  6. 6. Reasons for Water Crisis  Water resources under pressure from population growth, economic activity, growing competition from many water users;  Withdrawals increased more than twice the rate of population growth;  Development and pollution are exacerbating water scarcity;  Uncoordinated development and management of water resources;  Climate change will impact on water resources.
  7. 7. Challenges Improving access to water (all users) and sanitation What is needed?  Government making this a priority;  Appropriate long-term financing;  Resolving competition among users and environmental challenges;  Advocacy on-behalf of poor;  Improved capacity of governments to deliver services to all users;  Government accountability in meeting the needs of all users.
  8. 8. What is IWRM?  A systematic process for sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social, economic and environmental goals and objectives.
  9. 9. IWRM is a paradigm shift. Departs from traditional approaches in three ways:  Cross-cutting and departs from traditional sectoral approach.  Spatial focus is the river basin;  Departure from narrow professional and political boundaries and perspectives and broadened to incorporate participatory decision-making of all stakeholders (Inclusion versus exclusion).
  10. 10. Interdependency  The basis of IWRM is that there are a variety of uses of water resources which are interdependent. The need to consider the different uses of water together
  11. 11. Examples of Competing but Interdependent Uses
  12. 12. The Water Balancing Act Demand • Increasing in all sectors • Inefficient use Supply • Quantity (Natural Scarcity, Groundwater Depletion) • Quality Degradation • Cost of Options IWRM
  13. 13. IWRM Dimensions Integrated Water Resources Management Water supply & sanitation Irrigation & drainage Energy Environ- mental services Infrastructure forInfrastructure for management ofmanagement of floods andfloods and droughts,droughts, multipurposemultipurpose storage, waterstorage, water quality and sourcequality and source protectionprotection Policy/Policy/ InstitutionalInstitutional frameworkframework ManagementManagement instrumentsinstruments Political economyPolitical economy of waterof water managementmanagement Other uses including industry and navigation Water Uses
  14. 14. Governance Health WaterQuality WaterSupply Floods/Droughts Energy Agriculture Industry PollutionPrev CoastalMgt. EcosystemMgt. Activity Sectors (water uses) Social Development Economic Development Env. Protection Objectives Policy/Inst. Framework Management Institutions The IWRM Process Feedback Prosperity IWRM Water and waterrelated policies review and revision IWRM Resource development, management, monitoring, and evaluation IWRM Resource availability/use analysis and allocation
  15. 15. Water Management Framework At the core of the water management framework is:  Treatment of water as an economic and social good;  Decentralised management and delivery structures;  Greater reliance on economic instruments;  Broader participation of stakeholders.
  16. 16. What will a Water Management Framework do? 1) Provide framework for analysing policies and options that will guide decisions in relation to:  Water scarcity;  Service efficiency;  Water allocation; and  Environmental protection. 2) Facilitate consideration of relationships between the ecosystem and socio-economic activities in river basins.
  17. 17. Think about it  Could you give examples from your own country where interdependency of water uses exists?
  18. 18. End  The next presentation deals with the principles of water management