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In Sales Performance
Daniel Maurath
May 08, 2013
Research Methods 770
San Francisco State University
Background
BIG 5 PERSONALITY
1 Extraversion
2 Conscientiousnes
s
3 Agreeableness
4 Neuroticism
5 Openness
.24
PERSONALITY-JOB PERFORM...
Extraverted:
definition: tendency to be
sociable, assertive, expressiv
e and active.
LEVEL OF
EXTRAVERSION
Extraverted:
definition: tendency to be
sociable, assertive, expressiv
e and active.
Introverted
definition: tendency to f...
Extraverted:
definition: tendency to be
sociable, assertive, expressiv
e and active.
Introverted
definition: tendency to f...
Past Research
Why Sales?
• 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010)
work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013)
Why Sales?
• 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 2013)
• Su...
Why Sales?
• 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 2013)
• Su...
Why Sales?
• 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 2013)
• Su...
Why Sales?
• 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 2013)
• Su...
Extraversion & Sales Performance
Extraversion related:
• training proficiency (.26)
(Barrick and Mount, 1991)
• supervisor...
Extraversion & Sales Performance
Extraversion related:
• training proficiency (.26)
(Barrick and Mount, 1991)
• supervisor...
Extraversion & Sales Performance
Extraversion related:
• training proficiency (.26)
(Barrick and Mount, 1991)
• supervisor...
Ambiversion & Sales Performance
(Grant, 2013)
Ambiverted salespeople
performed better introverted
or extraverted salespeop...
Sales Mgrs. & Sales Performance
• Numerous research supports sales managers
influence on sales people performance
(Bragg, ...
Do sales people perform better under
introverted, extraverted or ambiverted
managers?
Hypotheses
Hypothesis #1: - Ambiverted salespeople will
perform better than extraverted or introverted
salespeople. (repli...
Method
Participants
• Convenient sample from
large Bay Area sales
organizations.
• 100 Sales Managers &
Sales Teams
Total N of ~1...
Correlational Study
source: xkcd.com
Study Overview
Managers and
Salespeople take
personality survey
Prior to Study
3 MONTHS
End Of
Fiscal Quarter
Managers and...
20-Item Personality Scale
10 minute requirement
Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The ...
Data Analysis +
Results
Data Analysis
Hierarchical Multiple Regression to
• test replication of sales person ambiversion-performance
relationship ...
Implications
PRACTICAL
• Sales manager selection
• Sales manager and sales
person performance
management
• Sales team asse...
Thank You.
Questions?
References
• Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta- analy...
References (continued)
• Grant, A. M. 2013. Rethinking the extraverted sales ideal: The ambivert advantage. Forthcoming in...
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Ambiversion In Sales Performance

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Ambiversion In Sales Performance

  1. 1. In Sales Performance Daniel Maurath May 08, 2013 Research Methods 770 San Francisco State University
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. BIG 5 PERSONALITY 1 Extraversion 2 Conscientiousnes s 3 Agreeableness 4 Neuroticism 5 Openness .24 PERSONALITY-JOB PERFORMANCE CORRELATION (Tett, Jackon & Rothstein, 1991)
  4. 4. Extraverted: definition: tendency to be sociable, assertive, expressiv e and active. LEVEL OF EXTRAVERSION
  5. 5. Extraverted: definition: tendency to be sociable, assertive, expressiv e and active. Introverted definition: tendency to focus on internal thoughts and experiences LEVEL OF EXTRAVERSION
  6. 6. Extraverted: definition: tendency to be sociable, assertive, expressiv e and active. Introverted definition: tendency to focus on internal thoughts and experiences Ambiverted definition: one who falls into midrange on the Introversion- Extraversion (IE) scale LEVEL OF EXTRAVERSION
  7. 7. Past Research
  8. 8. Why Sales? • 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013)
  9. 9. Why Sales? • 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013) • Success of a sales organization dependent on the performance of its sales force (Cravens, Ingram, LaForge, & Young, 1993)
  10. 10. Why Sales? • 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013) • Success of a sales organization dependent on the performance of its sales force (Cravens, Ingram, LaForge, & Young, 1993) • Sales people turnover at rates estimated to be as high as 2X the national average (Boles, Dudley, Onyemah, Rouziès & Weeks, 2012)
  11. 11. Why Sales? • 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013) • Success of a sales organization dependent on the performance of its sales force (Cravens, Ingram, LaForge, & Young, 1993) • Sales people turnover at rates estimated to be as high as 2X the national average (Boles, Dudley, Onyemah, Rouziès & Weeks, 2012) • Turnover costs 200% of salary (Boles, Dudley, Onyemah, Rouziès & Weeks, 2012)
  12. 12. Why Sales? • 1.46 million or 10% of employed adults in the US (2010) work in sales (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013) • Success of a sales organization dependent on the performance of its sales force (Cravens, Ingram, LaForge, & Young, 1993) • Sales people turnover at rates estimated to be as high as 2X the national average (Boles, Dudley, Onyemah, Rouziès & Weeks, 2012) • Turnover costs 200% of salary (Boles, Dudley, Onyemah, Rouziès & Weeks, 2012) • Payoff for selecting successful salespersons is greater than for other occupations (Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, and Roth, 1998)
  13. 13. Extraversion & Sales Performance Extraversion related: • training proficiency (.26) (Barrick and Mount, 1991) • supervisor ratings (.18) and sales performance (.22) (Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, and Roth, 1998) • supervisor ratings (.28) and sales performance (.26) (Hough, 1992; Hough; Vinchur et al., 1998)
  14. 14. Extraversion & Sales Performance Extraversion related: • training proficiency (.26) (Barrick and Mount, 1991) • supervisor ratings (.18) and sales performance (.22) (Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, and Roth, 1998) • supervisor ratings (.28) and sales performance (.26) (Hough, 1992; Hough; Vinchur et al., 1998) Extraversion UNrelated: • wholesale manufacturing sales (Barrick, Mount, & Strauss, 1993) • business to business sales (Stewart, 1996) • health and fitness sales (Furnham & Fudge, 2008) • Extraversion and sales performance only .07 (insignificant) in 3 Meta-Analyses (Barrick et al., 2001)
  15. 15. Extraversion & Sales Performance Extraversion related: • training proficiency (.26) (Barrick and Mount, 1991) • supervisor ratings (.18) and sales performance (.22) (Vinchur, Schippmann, Switzer, and Roth, 1998) • supervisor ratings (.28) and sales performance (.26) (Hough, 1992; Hough; Vinchur et al., 1998) Extraversion Unrelated: • wholesale manufacturing sales (Barrick, Mount, & Strauss, 1993) • business to business sales (Stewart, 1996) • health and fitness sales (Furnham & Fudge, 2008) • Extraversion and sales performance only .07 (insignificant) in 3 Meta-Analyses (Barrick et al., 2001) In Sum: Extraversion-Sales Performance Relationship is inconclusive.
  16. 16. Ambiversion & Sales Performance (Grant, 2013) Ambiverted salespeople performed better introverted or extraverted salespeople. $4000 more in revenue.
  17. 17. Sales Mgrs. & Sales Performance • Numerous research supports sales managers influence on sales people performance (Bragg, 1988; Davis et al., 2000; Deeter-Schmelz et al.,2012; Jaworski & Kohli 1991; Kohli 1985; Podsakoff, 1982; Rich, 1997; Sujan et al.,1988;)
  18. 18. Do sales people perform better under introverted, extraverted or ambiverted managers?
  19. 19. Hypotheses Hypothesis #1: - Ambiverted salespeople will perform better than extraverted or introverted salespeople. (replication of Grant, 2013) Hypothesis #2: - Salespeople led by ambiverted managers will have higher sales revenue than teams led by either introverted or extraverted sales managers.
  20. 20. Method
  21. 21. Participants • Convenient sample from large Bay Area sales organizations. • 100 Sales Managers & Sales Teams Total N of ~1,100
  22. 22. Correlational Study source: xkcd.com
  23. 23. Study Overview Managers and Salespeople take personality survey Prior to Study 3 MONTHS End Of Fiscal Quarter Managers and Salespeople sign up for and consent to study Supervisor collects and gives revenue data to researcher Start of Fiscal Quarter
  24. 24. 20-Item Personality Scale 10 minute requirement Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet- effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, 18, 192-203.
  25. 25. Data Analysis + Results
  26. 26. Data Analysis Hierarchical Multiple Regression to • test replication of sales person ambiversion-performance relationship (Hypothesis 1) • test manager ambiversion-sales performance relationship (Hypothesis 2) Results • Add predictor at each step • Significant change in R2 between steps indicates significant contribution of the variable added
  27. 27. Implications PRACTICAL • Sales manager selection • Sales manager and sales person performance management • Sales team assembly and selection ACADEMIC • Replication of the Grant (2013) study • Adds to extraversion-job performance literature • Adds to general personality literature
  28. 28. Thank You. Questions?
  29. 29. References • Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta- analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26. • Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Strauss, J. P. (1993). Conscientiousness and performance of sales representatives: Test of the mediating effects of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 715-722. • Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next?. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 9, 9–30. • Barry, B., & Stewart, G. L. (1997). Composition, process, and performance and in self-managed groups: The role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 62–78. • Boles, J. S., Dudley, G. W., Onyemah, V., Rouziès, D., & Weeks, W. A. (2012). Sales force turnover and retention: A research agenda. Journal Of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(1), 131-140 • Bragg, Arthur. 1988. "Are Good Salespeople Born or Made?" Sales & MarketingManagement140 (September): 74-78. • Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Managers' upward influence tactic strategies: the role of manager personality and supervisor leadership style. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(2), 197–214. • Cohen, D., & Schmidt, J. P. (1979). Ambiversion: Characteristics of Midrange Responders on the Introversion-Extraversion Continuum. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 43(5), 514. • Cravens, D. W, Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W, & Young, C. E. (1993). Behavior-based and outcome-based salesforce control systems. Journal of Marketing, 57, 47-59. • Deeter-Schmelz, D. R., Kennedy, K. N., & Goebel, D. J. (2002). Understanding sales manager effectiveness: Linking attributes to sales force values. Industrial Marketing Management, 31(7), 617-626. • Davis, J. H., Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Tan, H. H. (2000). The trusted general manager and business unit performance: Empirical evidence of a competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 21(5), 563-576. • Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, 18, 192-203. • Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: Hodder & Stoughton. • Furnham, A., & Fudge, C. (2008). The five factor model of personality and sales performance. Journal of Individual Differences, 29, 11-16.
  30. 30. References (continued) • Grant, A. M. 2013. Rethinking the extraverted sales ideal: The ambivert advantage. Forthcoming in Psychological Science • Hough, L. M. (1992). The "Big-Five" personality variable- construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139- 155. • Hough, L. M., Eaton, N. K., Dunnette, M. D., Kamp, J. D., & McCloy, R. A. (1990). Criterion-related validities of person- ality constructs and the effect of response distortion on those validities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 581-595. • Jaworski, Bernard and Ajay K. Kohli. 1991. "Supervisory Feedback: Alternative Types and Their Impact on Salespeople's Performanc eand Satisfaction.Journal of Marketing Research 28 (May): 190-201. • Kohli, Ajay K. 1985. "Some Unexplored Supervisory Behaviors and Their Influence on Salespeople's Role Clarity, Specific Self- Esteem, JobSatisfaction, andMotivation.Journal of Marketing Research 22 (November): 424-433. • Podsakoff, Philip M. 1982. "Determinants of a Supervisor's Use of Rewards and Punishments." Organizational Behavior and Human Performance29(January): 58-82. • Rich, G. A. (1997). The sales manager as a role model: Effects on trust, job satisfaction, and performance of salespeople. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(4), 319-328. • Stewart, G. L. (1996). Reward structure as a moderator of the relationship between extraversion and sales performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 619-627. • Sujan, Harish, Barton A. Weitz, and Mita Sujan. 1988. "Increasing Sales Productivity by Getting Salespeople to Work Smarter." Journalof PersonalSellingandSalesManagement8(August): 9-19. • Tett, R. T , Jackson, D. N., & Rothstein, M. (1991). Personality measures as predictors of job performance: A meta-analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 44, 703-742. • U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Employment situation summary. Retrieved from website: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm • Vinchur, A. J., Schippmann, J. S., & Switzer III, F. S., and Roth, PL (1998). A meta-analytical view of job performance for salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 586-597.

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