Preparing to Automate Data Management<br />1<br />Chapter 1<br />“You can use all the quantitative data you can get, but y...
Chapter Introduction<br />Discovery phase includes<br />Gathering all existing data <br />Researching missing and incomple...
Database Design Process: The Discovery Phase<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solv...
Level 1 Objectives: Examining Existing and Missing Sources of Data<br />Discover and evaluate sources of existing business...
Discovering and Evaluating Sources of Existing Data<br />Identify information that organization needs to manage and organi...
Discovering and Evaluating Sources of Existing Data (cont’d)<br />Data duplication<br />Undesirable <br />Additional space...
Researching Sources of Missing Data<br />Part of discovery phase<br />Must ask right questions of right people to get righ...
Assimilating the Available Information and Planning the Database<br />First step in database design <br />Determine best w...
Assimilating the Available Information and Planning the Database (continued)<br />Table<br />Collection of fields that des...
Evaluating Field Values and Assigning Appropriate Data Types<br />Data type 	<br />Determines how to store data in field<b...
Common Data Types and Their Descriptions<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving ...
The Text and Memo Data Types<br />Text data type<br />Letters and numbers<br />Not used in calculations or formulas<br />S...
The Number Data Type<br />Stores both positive and negative numbers <br />Contains up to 15 digits<br />Use for values use...
The Currency Data Type<br />Includes two decimal places and displays values with dollar sign<br />Use for monetary values<...
The Date/Time Data Type<br />Display values in format mm/dd/yyyy<br />Can also include time in different formats<br />Used...
The AutoNumber Data Type<br />Unique to Access<br />Number automatically generated by access <br />Produces unique values ...
The Yes/No Data Type<br />Assigned to fields requiring <br />Yes/no<br />True/false<br />On/off<br />Takes up one characte...
The OLE Object Data Type<br />Used to identify files created in another program 	- Then linked or embedded in database<br ...
The Hyperlink Data Type<br />Assigned to fields that contain hyperlinks to <br />Web pages<br />E-mail addresses<br />File...
The Lookup Wizard Data Type<br />Creates fields to look up data in <br />Another table<br />Or list of values created for ...
The Attachment Data Type<br />New to Access 2007<br />Lets you store one or more files for each record in the database<br ...
Selecting the Correct Data Type<br />Helps store correct data in correct format while using least amount of space<br />Eas...
Assigning the Correct Field Size for Text Fields<br />Important to consider field size when assigning data types<br />Mini...
Assigning the Correct Field Size for Number Fields<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Proble...
Dividing the Existing and Missing Data into Tables<br />Tables <br />Single most important component of database<br />Most...
Database Design Process: Planning the Tables<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solv...
Naming Conventions<br />Database tables must <br />Have unique names<br />Follow established naming conventions  <br />Gen...
Leszynski/Reddick Naming Conventions for Database Objects<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A...
Level 1 Summary<br />Discovery phase<br />Identify existing and missing data<br />Determine tables<br />Determine data typ...
Level 2 Objectives:Understanding and Creating Table Relationships<br />Understand relational database objects and concepts...
Understanding Relational Database Objects<br />Users can view data in tables by:<br />Opening table <br />Creating other o...
Tables<br />Data in relational database stored in one or more tables<br />View data in table <br />Open it and scroll thro...
Queries<br />Query <br />Question asked about data stored in database<br />Query results<br />Look similar to table<br />F...
Queries (continued)<br />Select query <br />Most commonly used query<br />Data selected from table on which query based<br...
Forms<br />Used to view add delete, update and print records in database<br />Based on table or query<br />Interface more ...
Form Based on a Table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />36<b...
Reports<br />Formatted presentation of data from table or query <br />Created as printout or to be viewed on screen<br />D...
Accounts Receivable Report<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br /...
Other Database Objects<br />Macro <br />Set of instructions <br />Automate certain database tasks<br />Usually automates s...
Understanding Relational Database Concepts<br />Flat file database<br />Simple database <br />Contains single table of inf...
Creating Table Relationships<br />Take advantage of interrelated objects<br />Goal in good database design <br />Create se...
One-to-Many Relationships<br />Abbreviated as 1:M<br />One record in first table matches zero one or many records in relat...
One-to-Many Relationship Between Customers and Prescriptions<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007...
One-to-One Relationships<br />Abbreviated as 1:1<br />Exists when each record in one table matches exactly one record in r...
One-to-One Relationship Between Physical and Billing Addresses<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 20...
Many-to-Many Relationships<br />Abbreviated as M:N<br />Each record in first table matches many records in second table<br...
Many-to-Many Relationship Between Employees and Classes<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A P...
Understanding Referential Integrity<br />Null value<br />Field does not contain any value<br />Entity integrity<br />Guara...
Understanding Referential Integrity (continued)<br />When database does not enforce referential integrity <br />Problems o...
Referential Integrity Errors<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br...
Overriding Referential Integrity<br />Might want to override referential integrity <br />Intentionally change primary key ...
Level 2 Summary<br />Main database objects:<br />Table<br />Query<br />Form<br />Report<br />Relationship types:<br />One-...
Level 3 Objectives: Identifying and Eliminating Database Anomalies by Normalizing Data<br />Learn the techniques for norma...
Normalizing the Tables in the Database<br />Normalization<br />Design process<br />Goals<br />Reduces space required to st...
Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Deletion anomaly <br />User deletes data from database <br />Unint...
Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Functional dependency<br />Column in table considered functionally...
Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Determinant<br />Field or collection of fields whose value determi...
Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Surrogate key <br />Computer-generated primary key <br />Usually i...
First Normal Form<br />Repeating group<br />Field contains more than one value<br />First normal form <br />1NF<br />Does ...
Second Normal Form<br />2NF<br />Table must be in 1NF <br />Must not contain any partial dependencies on composite primary...
Third Normal Form<br />3NF<br />Only determinants must be candidate keys<br />Candidate key <br />Field or collection of f...
Level 3 Summary<br />Normal forms<br />First (1NF)<br />Second (2NF)<br />Third (3NF)<br />Succeeding in Business with Mic...
Chapter Summary<br />Discovery:<br />Identify existing and missing data<br />Organize data into tables<br />Determine data...
Chapter Summary (continued)<br />Normalization<br />Reduces duplication and inconsistency<br />Forms:<br />1NF<br />2NF<br...
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Ch01 Access

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Ch01 Access

  1. 1. Preparing to Automate Data Management<br />1<br />Chapter 1<br />“You can use all the quantitative data you can get, but you stillhave to distrust it and use your own intelligence and judgment.” — Alvin Toffler<br />
  2. 2. Chapter Introduction<br />Discovery phase includes<br />Gathering all existing data <br />Researching missing and incomplete data<br />Talking with users about data output needs<br />Subsequent steps in process include<br />Putting data into groups called tables<br />Identifying unique values for each record in those tables <br />Designing database to produce desired output<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />2<br />
  3. 3. Database Design Process: The Discovery Phase<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />3<br />
  4. 4. Level 1 Objectives: Examining Existing and Missing Sources of Data<br />Discover and evaluate sources of existing business data<br />Research sources of missing or incomplete data<br />Assign data to tables and use field types and sizes to define data<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Discovering and Evaluating Sources of Existing Data<br />Identify information that organization needs to manage and organize<br />Might begin to see patterns that indicate how to organize data<br />Database management system (DBMS)<br />Includes:<br />Oracle <br />ColdFusion<br />Microsoft Access<br />MySQL<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />5<br />
  6. 6. Discovering and Evaluating Sources of Existing Data (cont’d)<br />Data duplication<br />Undesirable <br />Additional space required in database to store extra records<br />Leads to inconsistent and inaccurate data<br />Data redundancy<br />Same data repeated for different records<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />6<br />
  7. 7. Researching Sources of Missing Data<br />Part of discovery phase<br />Must ask right questions of right people to get right answers<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />7<br />
  8. 8. Assimilating the Available Information and Planning the Database<br />First step in database design <br />Determine best way to organize data into logical groups of fields<br />Field <br />Single characteristic of entity<br />Also called column<br />Record<br />Values in each field in table<br />Also called row<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />8<br />
  9. 9. Assimilating the Available Information and Planning the Database (continued)<br />Table<br />Collection of fields that describe one entity<br />Also called entity or relation<br />Database<br />Collection of one or more tables<br />Relational database<br />Contains related tables through fields that contain identical data<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />9<br />
  10. 10. Evaluating Field Values and Assigning Appropriate Data Types<br />Data type <br />Determines how to store data in field<br />DBMSs use different names for some data types<br />How do you determine which data type to assign each field? <br />Depends on what function you want to derive from data<br />Each data type has different properties<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />10<br />
  11. 11. Common Data Types and Their Descriptions<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />11<br />
  12. 12. The Text and Memo Data Types<br />Text data type<br />Letters and numbers<br />Not used in calculations or formulas<br />Stores maximum of 255 characters<br />Default for all fields created in access database<br />Memo data type<br />Store long passages of text<br />Displays only 64,000 characters<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />12<br />
  13. 13. The Number Data Type<br />Stores both positive and negative numbers <br />Contains up to 15 digits<br />Use for values used in calculations<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />13<br />
  14. 14. The Currency Data Type<br />Includes two decimal places and displays values with dollar sign<br />Use for monetary values<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />14<br />
  15. 15. The Date/Time Data Type<br />Display values in format mm/dd/yyyy<br />Can also include time in different formats<br />Used in calculations if necessary<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />15<br />
  16. 16. The AutoNumber Data Type<br />Unique to Access<br />Number automatically generated by access <br />Produces unique values for each record<br />Useful to distinguish two records that share identical information<br />Produces values of up to nine digits<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />16<br />
  17. 17. The Yes/No Data Type<br />Assigned to fields requiring <br />Yes/no<br />True/false<br />On/off<br />Takes up one character of storage space<br />Make data entry easy<br />Check box<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />17<br />
  18. 18. The OLE Object Data Type<br />Used to identify files created in another program - Then linked or embedded in database<br />Abbreviation for object linking and embedding<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />18<br />
  19. 19. The Hyperlink Data Type<br />Assigned to fields that contain hyperlinks to <br />Web pages<br />E-mail addresses<br />Files that open in <br />Web browser<br />E-mail client<br />Another application<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />19<br />
  20. 20. The Lookup Wizard Data Type<br />Creates fields to look up data in <br />Another table<br />Or list of values created for field<br />Makes data entry easy <br />Ensures that valid data entered into field<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />20<br />
  21. 21. The Attachment Data Type<br />New to Access 2007<br />Lets you store one or more files for each record in the database<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />21<br />
  22. 22. Selecting the Correct Data Type<br />Helps store correct data in correct format while using least amount of space<br />Eases data entry and interactivity with data <br />Choosing certain data types results in user-friendly interactive features<br />Drop-down menus <br />Check boxes<br />Hyperlinks<br />Correctly manipulate data<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />22<br />
  23. 23. Assigning the Correct Field Size for Text Fields<br />Important to consider field size when assigning data types<br />Minimize space reserved for each record by assigning smallest data type that will store data<br />Be conservative when assigning field sizes<br />But not too conservative<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />23<br />
  24. 24. Assigning the Correct Field Size for Number Fields<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />24<br />
  25. 25. Dividing the Existing and Missing Data into Tables<br />Tables <br />Single most important component of database<br />Most databases contain <br />Multiple tables <br />Hundreds or even thousands of records<br />Primary key <br />One field that creates unique value in each record <br />Used to identify each record in table<br />May be a combination of fields<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />25<br />
  26. 26. Database Design Process: Planning the Tables<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />26<br />
  27. 27. Naming Conventions<br />Database tables must <br />Have unique names<br />Follow established naming conventions <br />General rules for naming objects<br />Object names cannot exceed 64 characters<br />Object names cannot include period, exclamation point, accent grave, or brackets<br />Object names should not include spaces<br />Most developers capitalize first letter of each word when table name includes two words<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />27<br />
  28. 28. Leszynski/Reddick Naming Conventions for Database Objects<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />28<br />
  29. 29. Level 1 Summary<br />Discovery phase<br />Identify existing and missing data<br />Determine tables<br />Determine data types<br />Follow naming conventions<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />29<br />
  30. 30. Level 2 Objectives:Understanding and Creating Table Relationships<br />Understand relational database objects and concepts<br />Create table relationships<br />Understand referential integrity<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />30<br />
  31. 31. Understanding Relational Database Objects<br />Users can view data in tables by:<br />Opening table <br />Creating other objects<br />Four main objects in database <br />Tables<br />Queries<br />Forms<br />Reports<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />31<br />
  32. 32. Tables<br />Data in relational database stored in one or more tables<br />View data in table <br />Open it and scroll through records<br />Most of the time, three other main database objects used to display data normally<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />32<br />
  33. 33. Queries<br />Query <br />Question asked about data stored in database<br />Query results<br />Look similar to table<br />Fields displayed in columns <br />Records displayed in rows<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />33<br />
  34. 34. Queries (continued)<br />Select query <br />Most commonly used query<br />Data selected from table on which query based<br />Action query<br />Performs action on table<br />Select specific records in table and update them <br />Crosstab query <br />Performs calculations on values in field and displays results in datasheet<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />34<br />
  35. 35. Forms<br />Used to view add delete, update and print records in database<br />Based on table or query<br />Interface more attractive than table datasheet<br />Customize form’s appearance with instructions and command buttons<br />Switchboard <br />Form displayed when database opened<br />Provides controlled method for users to open objects in database<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />35<br />
  36. 36. Form Based on a Table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />36<br />
  37. 37. Reports<br />Formatted presentation of data from table or query <br />Created as printout or to be viewed on screen<br />Data displayed by report usually based on query<br />Dynamic<br />Reflect latest data from object<br />Cannot be used to modify data<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />37<br />
  38. 38. Accounts Receivable Report<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />38<br />
  39. 39. Other Database Objects<br />Macro <br />Set of instructions <br />Automate certain database tasks<br />Usually automates simple tasks<br />Module <br />Contains instructions to automate database task<br />Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)<br />Performs more sophisticated actions than macro<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />39<br />
  40. 40. Understanding Relational Database Concepts<br />Flat file database<br />Simple database <br />Contains single table of information<br />Relational database<br />Contains multiple tables to store related information<br />Common field <br />Field that appears in two or more tables and contains identical data to relate tables<br />Primary key in first table<br />Foreign key in second table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />40<br />
  41. 41. Creating Table Relationships<br />Take advantage of interrelated objects<br />Goal in good database design <br />Create separate tables for each entity<br />Ensure each table has primary key<br />Use common field to relate tables<br />Relate two (or more) tables<br />Query them as though they are one big table<br />Join <br />Specifies relationship between tables and properties of relationship<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />41<br />
  42. 42. One-to-Many Relationships<br />Abbreviated as 1:M<br />One record in first table matches zero one or many records in related table<br />Primary table<br />One side<br />Related table<br />Many side<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />42<br />
  43. 43. One-to-Many Relationship Between Customers and Prescriptions<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />43<br />
  44. 44. One-to-One Relationships<br />Abbreviated as 1:1<br />Exists when each record in one table matches exactly one record in related table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />44<br />
  45. 45. One-to-One Relationship Between Physical and Billing Addresses<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />45<br />
  46. 46. Many-to-Many Relationships<br />Abbreviated as M:N<br />Each record in first table matches many records in second table<br />Each record in second table matches many records in first table<br />Junction table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />46<br />
  47. 47. Many-to-Many Relationship Between Employees and Classes<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />47<br />
  48. 48. Understanding Referential Integrity<br />Null value<br />Field does not contain any value<br />Entity integrity<br />Guarantee that there are no duplicate records in table<br />Each record unique<br />No primary key field contains null values<br />Referential integrity <br />If foreign key in one table matches primary key in second table <br />Values in foreign key must match values in primary key<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />48<br />
  49. 49. Understanding Referential Integrity (continued)<br />When database does not enforce referential integrity <br />Problems occur that lead to inaccurate and inconsistent data<br />Orphaned<br />No longer match between primary key in primary table and foreign keys in related table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />49<br />
  50. 50. Referential Integrity Errors<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />50<br />
  51. 51. Overriding Referential Integrity<br />Might want to override referential integrity <br />Intentionally change primary key <br />Delete parent record<br />Cascade updates<br />Change primary key value so that DBMS automatically updates appropriate foreign key values in related table<br />Cascade deletes<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />51<br />
  52. 52. Level 2 Summary<br />Main database objects:<br />Table<br />Query<br />Form<br />Report<br />Relationship types:<br />One-to-many<br />One-to-one<br />Many-to-many<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />52<br />
  53. 53. Level 3 Objectives: Identifying and Eliminating Database Anomalies by Normalizing Data<br />Learn the techniques for normalizing data<br />Evaluate fields that are used as keys<br />Test the database design<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />53<br />
  54. 54. Normalizing the Tables in the Database<br />Normalization<br />Design process<br />Goals<br />Reduces space required to store data by eliminating duplicate data in database<br />Reduces inconsistent data in database by storing data only once<br />Reduces chance of deletion update and insertion anomalies<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />54<br />
  55. 55. Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Deletion anomaly <br />User deletes data from database <br />Unintentionally deletes only occurrence of data in database<br />Update anomaly <br />Due to redundant data in database<br />User fails to update some records or updates records erroneously<br />Insertion anomaly <br />User cannot add data to database unless preceded by entry of other data<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />55<br />
  56. 56. Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Functional dependency<br />Column in table considered functionally dependent on another column <br />If each value in second column associated with exactly one value in first column<br />Partial dependency <br />Field dependent on only part of primary key<br />Composite primary key<br />Primary key uses two or more fields to create unique records in table<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />56<br />
  57. 57. Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Determinant<br />Field or collection of fields whose value determines value in another field<br />Inverse of dependency<br />Natural key<br />Primary key that details obvious and innate trait of record<br />Artificial key<br />Field whose sole purpose is to create primary key<br />Usually visible to users<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />57<br />
  58. 58. Normalizing the Tables in the Database (continued)<br />Surrogate key <br />Computer-generated primary key <br />Usually invisible to users<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />58<br />
  59. 59. First Normal Form<br />Repeating group<br />Field contains more than one value<br />First normal form <br />1NF<br />Does not contain any repeating groups<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />59<br />
  60. 60. Second Normal Form<br />2NF<br />Table must be in 1NF <br />Must not contain any partial dependencies on composite primary key<br />Tables in 1NF and contain primary key with only one field <br />Automatically in 2NF<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />60<br />
  61. 61. Third Normal Form<br />3NF<br />Only determinants must be candidate keys<br />Candidate key <br />Field or collection of fields that could function as primary key but was not chosen to do so<br />Transitive dependency <br />Occurs between two nonkey fields both dependent on third field<br />Tables in 3NF should not have transitive dependencies<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />61<br />
  62. 62. Level 3 Summary<br />Normal forms<br />First (1NF)<br />Second (2NF)<br />Third (3NF)<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />62<br />
  63. 63. Chapter Summary<br />Discovery:<br />Identify existing and missing data<br />Organize data into tables<br />Determine data types for each field<br />Table relationships<br />Established through common fields<br />Types<br />1:M<br />1:1<br />M:N<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />63<br />
  64. 64. Chapter Summary (continued)<br />Normalization<br />Reduces duplication and inconsistency<br />Forms:<br />1NF<br />2NF<br />3NF<br />Succeeding in Business with Microsoft Office Access 2007: A Problem-Solving Approach <br />64<br />

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