The six wives ( queens consort ) of Henry VIII of England were, in order: Catherine of Aragon (annulled), Anne Boleyn (beheaded), Jane Seymour (died, childbirth fever), Anne of Cleves (annulled), Catherine Howard (beheaded), and Catherine Parr (survived him). Of the six queens, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour each gave Henry one child who survived infancy - two daughters and one son, and all three of them would eventually succeed in the throne as Edward VI , Mary I and Elizabeth I . Catherine of Aragon ( December 16 , 1485 – January 7 , 1536 ; Spanish : Catalina de Aragón ) was Henry's first wife. After the death of Arthur , her first husband and Henry's brother, Henry took her as his wife in 1509. Catherine bore him a girl, Mary I , but no sons who survived past infancy. Henry, then a devout Roman Catholic , sought the Pope's approval for an annulment on the grounds that the marriage was invalid because Catherine had first been his brother's wife. The true reason was his desire to carry on an affair with Anne Boleyn, who refused to yield to him unless she was queen (Henry had already consummated an affair with and then dismissed Anne's sister, and Anne wanted to avoid the same treatment). Despite receiving the pope's disapproval of an annulment, Henry separated from Catherine in 1531. In the face of the Pope's continuing refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine, Henry ordered the highest church official in England, Thomas Cranmer , Archbishop of Canterbury to convene a court to rule on the status of his marriage to Catherine. On May 23, 1533, Cranmer ruled the marriage to Catherine null and void. On May 28, 1533 he pronounced the King legally married to Anne Boleyn (with whom Henry had already secretly exchanged wedding vows, probably in late January 1533). This led to the break from the Roman Catholic Church and the later establishment of the Church of England . 2. Anne Boleyn , Marchioness of Pembroke (1501– May 19 , 1536 ) was Henry's second wife and the mother of Elizabeth I of England . Born into the English aristocracy, Anne was educated in France from 1514 until 1521 . Returning to England in 1522 , she was one of Catherine's ladies-in-waiting . She caught the eye of Henry VIII who proposed marriage to her in 1527 . An intellectual who believed in the Divine Right of Kings and certain aspects of the new Protestant religion, Anne played a major role in the English Reformation . She was crowned queen consort in 1533 , but after the birth of Princess Elizabeth that same year she failed to successfully carry another pregnancy to term. She was accused and convicted of adultery, incest, witchcraft and treason so that the King could marry someone else and produce a legitimate male heir; she was beheaded. Before her death, she joked that, &quot;I heard say the executioner was very good, and I have a little neck.&quot; Some people believed that she was a witch, and was covering up the evil mark with a necklace she wore every day—there were also rumors that she had six fingers on one hand. 3. Jane Seymour (c. mid- 1508 – October 24 , 1537 ) was Henry's third wife. He first became attracted to her while she was one of Anne Boleyn's ladies-in-waiting, and it is popularly believed she is the reason he disposed of Anne. She gave him his only male heir, later Edward VI , but died shortly after his birth of puerperal fever , or childbirth fever. 4. Anne of Cleves ( September 22 , 1515 – July 16 , 1557 ) was Henry's fourth wife, for only six months in 1540 , from January 6 to July 9 . She was also known as &quot; The Mare of Flanders &quot;. She agreed to have an annulment, claiming the marriage had not been consummated, and she was given a generous settlement, including Hever Castle , former home of Henry's former in-laws the Boleyns. She was given the name &quot;The King's Sister&quot;, and became a friend to him and his children. 5. Catherine Howard ( 1520 / 1525 ?– February 13 , 1542 ) was Henry's fifth wife 1540 – 1542 , sometimes known as &quot;the rose without a thorn&quot;. Henry was informed of her alleged adultery on November 1, 1541. After being deprived of the title of Queen, she was beheaded at the Tower of London . The night before, Catherine spent hours practicing how to lay her head upon the block, and her last words were for mercy for her family and prayers for her soul. She was buried next to her cousin Anne Boleyn. Her ghost is said to have haunted Henry for years later, and was even heard screaming by others. 6. Catherine Parr (about 1512 – September 7 , 1548 ), also spelled Katharine, was the sixth and last wife of Henry VIII 1543 – 1547 . She has a special place in history as the most married queen of England, having had four husbands in all. After Henry's death, she married Thomas Seymour , uncle of Edward VI . She had one child by him, Mary, and died in childbirth. Mary could not have survived long, as there are no records of her after her second birthday.
Puritans—wanted to reform, or purify, the Church of England Thought that bishops & priests had too much power Bible was the most reliable source of authority
Separatists—most extreme sect; formed own churches & cut all ties w/ Church of England English leaders begin to punish Separatists Pilgrims—one such group of Separatists that faced harsh treatment
Pilgrims did not like fact that children were learning the Dutch language & culture; were afraid they’d forget their English traditions Returned to England, formed a joint-stock company with some merchants, & applied for permission to settle in Virginia
After two months at sea, the Pilgrims sight land but realize they are too far north of Virginia; they were outside the boundaries of their charter. They decided to establish basic laws and social rules to govern their colony.
Mayflower Compact—signed on November 21, 1620; legal contract; 41 male passengers signed contract; agreed to fair laws to protect the general good. First attempt at self-government in the English colonies
Land @ Plymouth Rock Nearly ½ died the first winter
European fishing boats had visited area before arrival of Pilgrims—disease introduced by Europeans had killed most of the local Native Americans; No Indian interaction for a long time—Pilgrims found abandoned villages and empty cornfields that they cultivated themselves Samoset spoke broken English; had learned it from English fishermen
Pilgrims tired farming, but land was poor; hped to trade furs bud conditions were not good; colony grew stronger after more colonists arrived in mid-1620s Many families present in Pilgrim community, unlike Virginia; people hoped to have children—needed for work Family served as center of religious life, healthcare, and community well-being; women performed many household duties (weaving wool, sewing, making soap & butter, caring for livestock); men spend most of time repairing tools, working in the fields, and building shelters.
Puritans and pilgrims
U.S. HistoryThe English ColoniesThe Pilgrims and Puritans
Background Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of ClevesKing Henry VIII Catherine Howard Catherine Parr
Puritans & Pilgrims•Puritans—Protestant group that wanted to reform the Church of England
Puritans & Pilgrims• Separatists—Protestant group that cut all ties with the Church of England & developed their own churches• Pilgrims: a group of Separatists
Puritans & Pilgrims• 1608: Pilgrims escape to Netherlands to freely practice religion
Puritans & Pilgrims• Immigrants—people who leave their original country to live in another country• Pilgrims unhappy in Netherlands• Formed a joint-stock company & returned to England
The Founding of Plymouth• Sept. 16, 1620: 100+ men, women, children leave England aboard Mayflower• William Bradford: Pilgrim leader William Bradford statue
The Founding of Plymouth• Mayflower Compact written because colonists landed too far away from Virginia to be ruled by its government. Original Mayflower Compact
The Founding of Plymouth • Mayflower Compact— documents creating a new political society signedSigning the Mayflower by the Compact Pilgrims
The Founding of Plymouth• Pilgrims land in present-day Massachusetts in late 1620
Pilgrims & American Indians• No Indian interaction for long time• March 1621: Indian walks into Pilgrim community speaking English Samoset walking into• Introduces Pilgrims Pilgrim community to Squanto
The Pilgrim Community• Poor conditions for farming & fur trapping• Many families• Family center of life
The Pilgrim Community• Women had more rights in the Plymouth Colony than they had in England: – Make Contracts – Own property – Bring cases before court