Using clickers in SBCC college classrooms


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Using clickers in SBCC college classrooms

  1. 1. Clickers 12/12/11Robert Brown Mark Ferrer
  2. 2. • Request Flex Credit for This session
  3. 3. NXT ClickersInstalled inBC Forum H-111 ECC-11 A-160 EBS-301 PS-130 Nursing A174
  4. 4. Clicker RF Receiver is plugged into the tower RF Receiver (Radio-Frequency) USB RF receiver setup is simple. No driver installation is required. The radio frequency technology allows for a 200 foot range (400 ft coverage) and does not need a “line of sight” with the ResponseCard keypads. The approximate size of a thumb drive, it doesn’t require cables and is easy to transport from room to room or class to class. For use with ResponseCard XR keypads.
  5. 5. Clicker Resources Student access to clickers: Bookstore ($45 with Buy Back of $20) Faculty provision (Carts, Carriers) Installed (No plans to increase #s of rooms) Faculty Training, clicker Resources &Support FRC
  6. 6. Clickers in context: Pedagogy, Tools, DataPedagogy/motivation: Student EngagementStrategies: Active learning, LearningCommunities, Social Constructivism, ContingentTeaching, Formative Assessment(Rubrics), Student Conferences, Follow-upTools: DRTAs(Heuristics), DLAs, Moodle, Moodle-basedSupplemental Instruction/LearningResources, Clickers, Web 2.0, Human PresenceTools...Data: Information about student performance in
  7. 7. Lecture Broadcast Model Chatting Texting? Napping Ogling
  8. 8. Lecture Broadcast Model 1000 years later Chatting Texting Napping
  9. 9. Mazur on Lecture"The lecture method is a processby which the lecture notes of theprofessor get to the notebooks ofthe students without passingthrough the brains of either."Eric Mazur
  10. 10. The Road to transformation:PedagogyA New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education By Robert B. Barr and John Tagg (Change magazine, 1995)
  11. 11. Clickers: benefits
  12. 12. Reasons for Using Clickers in the Classroom used in college classrooms(Caldwell, 2007), the top 9 reasons why clickers have beenare:• 1. to increase or manage interaction,• 2. to assess student preparation and ensure accountability,• 3. to find out more about students,• 4. for formative assessment,• 5. for quizzes or tests,• 6. to do practice problems,• 7. to guide thinking, review, and teaching,• 8. to keep students actively thinking,• 9. and to make lecture engaging
  13. 13. General Guidelines,use Clickers to… Promote active student engagement Generate instant feedback Promote discussion and collaboration
  14. 14. Early Discovery• Check for student understanding during class• Establish level of Prior Knowledge• Pretest/posttest pairs• Address Common Misconceptions
  15. 15. CATs: ImmediateFeedbacktechniques (CATs) are simple, non-Classroom assessmentgraded, usually anonymous, in-class activities designed togive you and your students useful feedback on the teaching-learning process as it is happening. (Angelo and Cross, 1993)They provide an easy and quick way to get feedback fromstudents about:Prior knowledgePreconceptions/misconceptionsOpinionsUnderstandingConfusionSatisfaction
  16. 16. Why Should I Use CATs?CATs can be used to improve the teaching and learning thatoccurs in a class. CATs can:• Provide just-in-time feedback about the teaching-learning process•Provide information about student learning with less work thantraditional assignments (tests, papers, etc.)•Encourage the view that teaching is an ongoing process ofinquiry, experimentation, and reflection• Help students become better monitors of their own learning• Help students feel less anonymous, even in large courses• Provide concrete evidence that the instructor cares about learning
  17. 17. Minute Paper
  18. 18. Adapt Minute Paper CAT to Clicker UseAdapt Minute Paper to Clicker use bylisting, before class, the major points covered inlecture. At the end of class ask students to selectfrom your list the most important point theylearned that day. Add “other” to see ifsomething else stood out.If “other” is the chief vote getter, have adiscussion asking what “other” was mostcommonly cited. Use small groups first to sortout the most shared “other important point,”then ask groups to explain that choice during thesubsequent full class discussion.
  19. 19. Follow-Up: DLAsDefinition of “Directed Learning Activity”Directed Learning Activities are guided processes directing students through the steps needed to complete tasks that reinforce the skills required of them to succeed in their courses. DLAs extend classroom instruction into a tutorial environment, using a one or two-page document that walks students through a sequence of learning activities that are mediated by a tutor.
  20. 20. How does the DLA process work?DLAs often follow up a classroom introduction.Students then take the assignment to a tutor whoprovides guidance (e.g.,five minutes) on how tocomplete the tasks, which are generallypresented as a series of instructional stepsthat, when completed (45 minutes), are broughtback to a tutor for consultation (e.g.,10 minutes).The tutor signs off and the student returns theassignment to the teacher.
  21. 21. Concept Tests"ConcepTest" refers to questions (questions interspersed ina lecture) used to assess students understanding ofconcepts presented in that lecture.During lecture students are presented with ConcepTestquestions.They formulate their own questions, then meet in groups totry to reach consensus on the best answer.This process forces students to think through thearguments being developed, and enables them (as well asthe instructor) to assess their understanding of theconcepts before they leave the classroom
  22. 22. Contingent Teaching Applied in real-time.As it can be challenging for instructors to determinewhat students do and do not understand, instructorscan use clickers to gauge student comprehension inreal-time during class and modify their lesson planaccordingly.If the clicker data show that students understand agiven topic, the instructor can move on to the next one.If not, more time can be spent on the topic, drawing onmore lecture, class discussion, or another clicker
  23. 23. Peer Instruction1. Teacher poses a question2. Students ponder the question silently and transmit their individual answers using the clickers.3. The teacher checks the histogram of student responses. • If significant numbers of students choose the wronganswer, the teacher instructs the students to discuss the question with their neighbor. • After a few minutes of discussion, the students submit their answers again. This technique often (but not always!) results in more students choosing the correct answer as a result of the peer instruction phase of the activity.
  24. 24. Peer InstructionEric Mazur:Peer Instruction engages students during classthrough activities that require each student to applythe core concepts being presented, and then toexplain those concepts to their fellow students.A class taught with PI is divided into a series ofshort presentations, each focused on a central pointand followed by a related conceptual question,called a ConcepTestwhich probes students’understanding of the ideas just presented.
  25. 25. Peer InstructionEric Mazur Continued:Students are given one or two minutes to formulateindividual answers and report their answers to theinstructor.Students then discuss their answers with others sittingaround them; the instructorurges students to try toconvince each other of the correctness of their ownanswer by explaining the underlying reasoning.During the discussion, which typically lasts two to fourminutes, the instructor moves around the roomlistening. Finally, the instructor calls an end to thediscussion, polls students for their answers again.
  26. 26. Peer InstructionThis method, besides having the advantage of engaging thestudent and making the lecture more interesting to thestudent, has the tremendous importance of giving theinstructor significant feedback about where the class isand what it knows. Too often, we use the "union ofknowledge principle" -- if any student in the class knowssomething, we assume the whole class knows it. Theresponse system gives us much better information aboutthe distribution of knowledge among our students. Thismethod also offers significant opportunity for engaging thestudents in discussions of reasoning and epistemology(how we decide which answers are right and under whatcircumstances the answers hold).
  27. 27. Peer Instruction: Steps1. Instructor shows the question and explains it,2. Students silently think for 1 to 1 1/2 minutes,3. Individuals answer (using clickers, which allow immediate tallying of anonymously given answers),4. Discussion ensues among small groups of students (instructor doesnt try to control the groupings),5. Students answer again, after their group has come to some consensus,6. Instructor explains the answer (and goes on to repeat the process for the next small bit of lecture).
  28. 28. Interrupted Case MethodInterrupted Case Method (Herreid 2005) is ideally suited foruse with clickers. The case is delivered in parts, or stages.1. At each stage, students are given information and asked to2.predict what might happen if such and such were done. Before voting, they consult with their neighbors…3.The case method integrates lecture material, case scenariomaterial, student discussion with their neighbors, clickerquestions, clarification of the answers, more lecture, and dataon learning.
  29. 29. Clickers and SLOsAsk questions that address outcomes. Use quizzes to determine the extent to which studentshave achieved the CSLOs set out in the course.The Session report will keep scores by student and question.Use the results to determine SLO scores for each student.The Effect of Clickers on Student Learning“Findings of this study revealed that the use of clickers showed a positiveimpact on overall student learning. Moreover, students also reported thatthey were satisfied, and that clickers increased their interest, cognitiveeffort, understanding, and motivation. Additionally, the findings here areconsistent with other research that shows that clickers can serve as a usefulpedagogical device (see for example, Berry, 2009;Mayer, Stull, DeLeeuw, Almeroth, Bimber et al., 2009; Shaffer & Collura, 2009).”Kimo Ah Yun, California State University, Sacramento, Maureen Lojo, California State University, Sacramento
  30. 30. Clickers: Tips
  31. 31. Clickers: Survey1) Will you be using Clickers in your Spring classes? 1 Yes 2 No2) If yes, in which room(s) will you be teaching in theSpring? _______ (Fill in Blank)3) How many students will you have in each class? _______ (Fill in Blank)4) Do you want to record attendance using clickers? 1 Yes 2 No
  32. 32. Clickers: Quiz Q1Q1. How many minutes are students given to arrive at their individual answers in the first round of the Peer Instruction process: 1. 5 2. 3 3. 1-2
  33. 33. Clickers: Quiz Q2Q2. Peer Instruction is valuable because (select all that arecorrect) 1. It gives the instructor significant feedback about where the class is and what it knows. 2. It gives us much better information about the distribution of knowledge among our students. 3. It makes it less critical to prepare for class 4. It engages students in discussions of reasoning and epistemology. 5. It is a gateway to Facebook and the dangers of self- absorption.
  34. 34. Clickers: Quiz Q3Q3. Concept Tests probe students’ understanding of the ideas just presented in lecture. 1. True 2. False
  35. 35. Clickers: Quiz Q4Q4. DLA is an acronym for 1. Direct Learning Activity 2. Directed Learning Access 3. Detailed Lesson Activity 4. Directed Learning Activity
  36. 36. Clickers: Quiz Q5• Q5. Teachers employing Contingent Teaching (Please select the better answer) 1. use clickers to gauge student comprehension in real-time during class 2. use clickers to gauge student comprehension in real-time during class and modify their lesson plan accordingly. 3. use clickers to gauge student opinion in real- time during class and modify their lesson plan accordingly.
  37. 37. TurningPoint AnyWhereWith TurningPoint AnyWhere you can poll in ANYapplication. Using a floating toolbar, TurningPointAnyWhere allows you to poll from content in whiteboardsoftware, web browsers, PDFs, Word documents ...with no additional preparation required. Use yourexisting presentation or classroom materials.Assessment and tracking for groups or individuals isalso easily accomplished with a powerful reportingengine. Participants and students can submit responsesusing either traditional ResponseCards orResponseWare.
  38. 38. Use TurningPoint Software to:Play Games with disguised Educational Intentions • Jeopardy • Want to be A Millionaire …Use Multiple Choice to test Critical Thinking Skill Ask for best answer Ask for more than one correct answer…
  39. 39. Use TurningPoint Software to:
  40. 40. Key Features Include:1. Floating toolbar will poll with ANY PC application2. Open and close polling at any time, regardless of program3. Dynamic charting will appear in new window and update with results4. Reports are available in CSV as well as html format5. Allows for creation of a Participant List, enabling presenter to track individual responses
  41. 41. Key Features continued:6. Session Viewer enables editing of current session7. Create and load question lists for advanced polling preparation8. Screen shot report captures question, results and screen shot of each question9. Create questions on-the-fly10. Question and connection information viewable in toolbar11. Display questions and results in full screen mode for easy viewing
  42. 42. TPAW Software DownloadYou can download TurningPoint AnyWheresoftware (TurningPoint AnyWhere 2.3) from theirsite for installation on your home and/or officecomputer. It’s free:
  43. 43. TurningPoint AnyWhere2.3 System Requirements • PC System Requirements • Intel or AMD 600 Mhz class processor (1 GHz or higher recommended) • 256 MB RAM • 60 MB hard disk space (an additional 32 MB is required if you do not have Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 installed) • 1024x768 resolution at 32-bit color or higher • Standard USB 1.1/2.0 port (for USB-based hardware devices or USB-serial Adapters • Ethernet or 802.11 compatible wireless network card
  44. 44. TurningPoint AnyWhere2.3 System Requirements • MacSystem Requirements • G3-class processor or better • Mac OS X 10.4 or higher • 256 MB of RAM (512 MB recommended) • 10 MB hard disk space • Available USB 1.1 or USB 2.0 port (for USB-based hardware devices)