Metadata & controlled vocabulary


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  • To further understand what metadata is, let us understand phrases?? Within itStructured- like MARC and Dublin CoreObject- includes corporeal or digital information resources (monographs, serials, photographs) or ACTIVITIES, events, persons, places etcfunctions associated with the designated object. Ito yungmgabagaynanagbibigaykahulugansa object. MgaimpormasyongPatungkolsa object. Example author and subject metadata facilitate the discovery of the resource
  • Content- intrinsic characteristics of an information object (subject of the object)Context- extrinsic to an information object (describes who created the object, what it is, why it was created, where it was created and how)Structure- can be intrinsic or extrinsic or bothBased on the definitions anongbagay or library tools angpumapasoksaisipnyo?
  • These two catalog records are consist of different metadata about the object OUR CHOICE by AL GORE
  • Iisalanganglayuninnila, to produce a surrogate that would enhance resource discovery – kaya podapat organizedinclude ‘‘author/ creator,’’ ‘‘title,’’ ‘‘subject,’’ ‘‘publication date,’’ and other metadata elements which served as access points in bibliographic information systemsWhich we will be learning in a whilein other words the record may well contain detailed access information and the network address(es).Links that would allow direct access to the resource (DOI, hdl, urletc)
  • Contains information on …It is the key to ensuring that resources will survive and continue to be accessible into the future
  • The order and the description of information objects in the repository is the primary function of metadata (descriptive info and structure)through metadata the users can identify or ascertain the authoritativeness and trustworthiness of those resources (author of the resource; in specific field of knowledge)Good descriptive metadata is essential to users’ ability to find and retrieve relevant metadata and information objectsTo know how the information object are utilized, metadata related to user annotations, rights tracking, and version control may be created. and to ensure information object's continued availability they must undergone processes such as refreshing, migration, and integrity checkingMetadata is a key component in documenting the disposition (e.g., accessioning, deaccessioning) of original objects and items in a repository, as well as of the information objects relating to those originals
  • Effectiveness of searching can be significantly enhanced through the existence of rich, consistent, carefully crafted descriptive metadatamake it easier to disseminate digital versions of unique objects to users around the globe who, for reasons of geography, economics,or other barriers, might otherwise not have an opportunity to view themMetadata can document changing uses of systems and content, and that information can in turn feed back into systems development decisionscan also facilitate an almost infinite number of ways for users to search for information, to present results, and even to manipulate and to present information objects without compromising their integrityMetadata allows repositories to track licensing, and reproduction information rights that exist for original items as well as for their related information objects and the multiple versions of those information objectsdocuments other legal or donor requirements that have been imposed on original objects and their surrogatesenables digital object to exist independently of the system that is currently being used to store and retrieve themBenchmark technical data, is necessary to evaluate and refine systems in order to make them more effective and efficient from a technical and economic standpoint. The data can also be used in planning for new systems.
  • can also be recorded in analog formats such as card catalogs, vertical files, and file labelsNot limited to the description of information object, but also with information object’s context, management, processing, preservation, and usecan be supplied by a human can also be generated automatically by a computer algorithm, inferred through a relationship to another resource such as a hyperlinkOne information object’s metadata can simultaneously be another information object’s data, depending on the kinds of aggregations of and dependencies between information objects and systems
  • functions are resource discovery, administration, use, etc.Data values may be uncontrolled or controlled (e.g., taken from a source such as LCSH or a standardized list of values)Examples of element attributes include the metadata element’s “name,” “identifier,” “label,” “definition,” and the “date the element was declared.” Data values may be uncontrolled or controlled (e.g., taken from a source such as LCSH or a standardized list of values).
  • Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.
  • Description- Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract, a table of contents, a graphical representation, or a free-text account of the resource
  • Identifier- Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string conforming to a formal identification system (Ex. DOI; hdl)
  • Rights (property rights)
  • TYPE- A second property with the same name as this property has been declared in the dcterms: namespace ( See the Introduction to the document "DCMI Metadata Terms
  • sufficient description of the resource, enough for the intended useshould be consistent in both their presence and absenceusers are able to interpret them at first glance (Clarity). values should appear on the appropriate fieldshould be able to be understood regardless of the domain or local context it was createdcontent standards or controlled vocabularies used in record creation conformance to standards increases the possibility of a record to be aggregated
  • It is the allowable
  • 4. controlled vocabulary enables more specific search resultsallowable content for a particular metadata element.
  • Metadata & controlled vocabulary

    1. 1. Metadata and Controlled Vocabulary Daryl L. Superio Sr. Information Assistant SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Library Presented at the Seminar Workshop Organize IT Digitally, Open-Source Tools for your Library organized by ASLP/SEAFDEC AQD, May 1517, 2013, Iloilo, Philippines
    2. 2. Metadata  Definition:  structured data about an object that supports functions associated with the designated object (J. Greenberg, 2003)  structured data, implies a systematic ordering of data according to a metadata schema specification  object is any entity, form, or mode for which contextual data can be recorded  functions associated with the designated object, emphasizes on the ability of metadata to support the activities and behaviors of an object
    3. 3. Metadata  Definition:  the sum total of what one can say about any information object at any level of aggregation (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)  all information objects, regardless of the physical or intellectual form they take, have three features  Content  relates to what the object contains or is about  Context  indicates the who, what, why, where, and how aspects associated with the object’s creation  Structure  relates to the formal set of associations within or among individual information objects
    4. 4. The Catalogs OPAC Catalog Card
    5. 5. Metadata Creation and Cataloging  Similarities (J. Greenberg, 2003)  same goal, to produce a set of structured descriptive data that will facilitate object discovery and other desired functions  web oriented metadata schemas are similar to traditional cataloging and indexing standards  web-oriented metadata schemas have adopted and promote the use of attribute value schemas (e.g., controlled vocabulary, classificatory system, etc.)  Difference (R. Heery, 1996)  metadata contain location information within the record, which to allow direct document delivery from appropriate application software
    6. 6. Different Types of Metadata and their Functions (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)      Administrative Descriptive Preservation Technical Use
    7. 7. Different Types of Metadata and their Functions (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)  Administrative  used in managing and administering collections and information resources  Examples. Acquisition information; Rights and reproduction tracking; Documentation of legal access requirements; Location information; Selection criteria for digitization  Descriptive  used to identify and describe collections and related information resources  Examples. Cataloging records; Finding aids; Differentiations between versions; Annotations by creators and users
    8. 8. Different Types of Metadata and their Functions (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)  Preservation  related to the preservation management of collections and information resources  Examples. Documentation of physical condition of resources; Documentation of actions taken to preserve physical and digital versions of resources, e.g., data refreshing and migration  Technical  related to how a system functions or metadata behaves  Examples. Hardware and software documentation; Technical digitization information, e.g., formats, compression ratios, scaling routines; Authentication and security data, e.g., encryption keys, passwords
    9. 9. Different Types of Metadata and their Functions (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)  Use  related to the level and type of use of collections and information resources  Examples. Circulation records; Use and user tracking; Search logs
    10. 10. Primary Functions of Metadata (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)      Organization and description Validation Searching and retrieval Utilization and preservation Disposition
    11. 11. Importance of Metadata       (A.J. Gilliland, 2008) Increased accessibility Expanding use System development and enhancement Legal issues Preservation and persistence System improvement and economics
    12. 12. Facts about Metadata (A.J. Gilliland, 2008)  Metadata does not have to be digital  Metadata relates to more than the description of an object  Metadata can come from a variety of sources  Metadata continues to accrue during the life of an information object or system
    13. 13. Metadata Scheme (J. Greenberg, 2005)  a collection of metadata elements gathered to support a function, or a series of functions for an information object  a collection of metadata elements, forming a structured container, to which data values are added  a collection of data elements, with their attributes formalized in a specification (or a data dictionary)
    14. 14. Metadata Schemas  Dublin Core  consist of 15 elements that can be used to describe the content on information resource, the information resource itself and to identify the individual responsible for the creation of the resource  The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)  develop guidelines for marking up electronic texts such as novels, plays, and poetry, primarily to support research in the humanities
    15. 15. Metadata Schemas  Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)  developed to fill the need for a standard data structure for describing complex digital library objects  METS is an XML Schema  Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)  is a descriptive metadata schema that is a derivative of MARC 21 and intended to either carry selected data from existing MARC 21 records or enable the creation of original resource description records
    16. 16. Dublin Core (DC)  a metadata standard consisting of 15 information elements for describing networked resource  includes typical bibliographic elements  e.g. title, creator, publisher, etc.  includes elements that are related to networked resources  e.g. type and format of resource
    17. 17. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Contributor  an entity responsible for making contributions to the resource  Coverage  the spatial or temporal topic of the resource, the spatial applicability of the resource, or the jurisdiction under which the resource is relevant
    18. 18. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Creator  an entity primarily responsible for making the resource  Date  a point or period of time associated with an event in the lifecycle of the resource  Description  an account of the resource
    19. 19. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Format  the file format, physical medium, or dimensions of the resource  Identifier  an unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context  Language  a language of the resource  recommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary
    20. 20. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Publisher  an entity responsible for making the resource available  Relation  related resource  Rights  information about rights held in and over the resource
    21. 21. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Source  related resource from which the described resource is derived  Subject  topic of the resource  he subject will be represented using keywords, key phrases, or classification codes.  recommended best practice is to use a controlled vocabulary
    22. 22. Elements of DC Metadata Set  Title  a name given to the resource  Type  nature or genre of the resource
    23. 23. Quality Metadata  is a shareable metadata  content is optimized for sharing  metadata within shared collections reflects consistent practices  coherent  context is provided  communication between service providers and data providers  must conform with the recognized standards
    24. 24. Controlled Vocabulary  established list of preferred terms from which a cataloger or indexer must select when assigning subject headings or descriptors in a bibliographic record, to indicate a content of a work in a library catalog, index or bibliographic detabase  Examples:  LCSH; Sears List; ASFA Thesaurus; FAO Agrovoc;Art and Architecture Thesaurus
    25. 25. The Importance of Controlled Vocabularies      Consistency Accuracy Interoperability Enhancement of searches and discovery Efficient use of time
    26. 26. Reference List        Gilliland, A.J. (2008). Setting the stage. In Introduction to Metadata (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-19). Greenberg, J. (2003). Metadata and the World Wide Web. In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (pp. 1876-1888). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. Greenberg, J. (2005). Understanding metadata and metadata schemes. Cataloging &Classification Quarterly, 40(3-4), 17-36. Heery, R. (1996). Review of metadata formats. Program: electronic library and information systems, 30(4), 345-373. NISO. (2004). Understanding metadata. Bethesda, MD: NISO. Shreeves, S. L., Riley, J., & Milewicz, L. (2006). Moving towards shareable metadata. First Monday, 11(8). Retrieved 12 May 2013 from Taylor, S. (2010). An introduction to Dublin Core . Retrieved 14 May 2013 from