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Grammar Book

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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Spanish Grammar Book!<br />David Morrison<br />Period: 3<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Table of Contents<br />El Pretérito…………………………………………………………………………………………….................................... 5<br /> Trigger Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6<br /> -Car -Gar -Zar……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7<br /> Spock Verbs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8<br /> Cucaracha Verbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9<br /> Snake Verbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10<br />Snakey Verbs………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11<br />El Imperfecto………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12<br /> Trigger words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13<br /> Irregulars………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14<br />Preteritevs Imperfect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15<br />Ser vsEstar……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16<br />Verbs like Gustar…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17<br />Comparative/Superlatives…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18<br />Transition Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19<br />El Futuro ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20<br /> Trigger Words…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21<br /> Irregulars…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Table of Contents<br />Por………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23<br />Para………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24<br />The Conditional…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25<br /> Irregulars…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26<br />Past Participle……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27<br />Present Perfect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28<br />Past Perfect…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29<br />Present Perfect Subjunctive………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30<br />Tanto and Tan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31<br />Impersonal ‘Se’……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32<br />Saber vsConocer………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33<br />Informal Commands……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34<br />Formal Commands……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 35<br />Nosotros Commands (w/ mono verbs)…………………………………………………………………………………. 36<br />Subjunctive…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37<br /> Forming the Subjunctive………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 Irregulars……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39-40<br />Impersonal Expressions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Table of Contents<br />Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 42<br />Subjunctive: Conjunctions of Time………………………………………………………………………………………… 43<br />Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………. 44-45<br />
  5. 5. El Pretérito<br />-ar<br />-er<br />When using the preterite, take off the <br />-er, -ir, or -ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.<br />-ir<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Tigger Words<br />These words indicate that the preterite will be used.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. -Car -gar -zar<br />-gar<br />-car<br />When using <br />-car -gar -zar verbs in the preterite, take of the <br />-car, -gar, or <br />-zar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.<br />-zar<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Spock Verbs<br />Hacer<br />DAR<br />SER<br />IR<br />VER<br />Ir/Ser<br />Dar/Ver<br />HACER<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Cucaracha Verbs<br />root<br />ending<br />With these irregular verbs, in the preterite, change the root and add the appropriate ending.<br />Note: When the verbs ‘conducir’, ‘producir’, ‘traducir’, ‘decir’, and ‘traer’ are used in the thrid-person plural, take off the i in ‘ieron’.<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Snake Verbs<br />If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to i, then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite.<br />If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to ie, then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Snakey Verbs<br />For verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, and -oer, the él/ella/usted forms use the ending "yó" (rather than ió) and the third person plural uses the ending "yeron" (rather than ieron). The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter "i."<br />Verbs that end in -uir change in the same way, but the written accent over the letter "i" only occurs in the yo form.<br />Creer<br />Huir<br />Exceptions to the Rule:<br />traeratraerdistraer<br />Cucaracha<br />Verbs!<br />11<br />
  12. 12. El Imperfecto<br />-er/-ir<br />-ar<br />When using the imperfect, take off the <br />-er, -ir, or -ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Trigger Words<br />These words indicate that the imperfect will be used.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Irregulars<br />ir<br />ser<br />ver<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Preteritev. Imperfect<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Ser<br />Estar<br />V.<br />Description<br /> -Es un lápiz<br />Origin<br /> -Es de Argentina<br />Characteristics<br /> -Es alto<br />Time<br /> -Son las dos<br />Occupation<br /> -Es Doctor<br />Relationship<br /> -Es mi papá<br />Possession<br /> -Es de mi madre<br />Event<br /> -Es en el cine<br />Dates<br />-Es el lunes<br />Physical Condition<br /> -It is a condition that can change, not a trait<br />-Estoymuytristeporquesaquémalasnotas.<br />Location (Not Events)<br /> -Es de Argentina, peroahoraesta en los EstadosUnidos.<br />Present Progressive Tense (-ing verbs)<br /> -Estalloviendo.<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Verbs Like Gustar<br />Faltar<br />Quedar<br />Encantar<br />Caer (bien/mal)<br />Molestar<br />Fascinar<br />Aburrir<br />Apetecer<br />Doler<br />Soprender<br />Disgustar<br />Interesar<br />Preocupar<br />Importar<br /><ul><li>When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used
  18. 18. Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaría) to soften a request.
  19. 19. A Adela le encanta la música de Shakira.
  20. 20. A mi me intresa la músic de otrospaíses.
  21. 21. A mis amigos les encantanlascanciones de Maná.</li></ul>17<br />
  22. 22. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />Comparatives<br />Superlatives<br />They are formed with:<br />the definite article + noun + más<br />or <br />menos + adjective<br />Ex: Carlos es la persona más inteligente que trabaja aquí.<br />Ex: Es la ciuEquality<br />dad menos interesante del mundo.<br />Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs while tanto is used with nouns and verbs.<br />Irregulars<br />18<br />
  23. 23. Transition Words<br />19<br />
  24. 24. El Futuro<br />20<br />
  25. 25. Trigger Words<br />21<br />
  26. 26. Irregulars<br />root<br />ending<br />With these irregular verbs, in the future tense, change the root and add the appropriate ending.<br />22<br />
  27. 27. Por<br /><ul><li>Passing through
  28. 28. Caminópor la calle.
  29. 29. General rather than specific location
  30. 30. Se encuentraporahí.
  31. 31. How long something lasts
  32. 32. Estuvoenfermoporsietedías.
  33. 33. The cause of something
  34. 34. Porsu culpa, no fuimos al cine.
  35. 35. An exchange
  36. 36. Cambiósu auto porunonuevo.
  37. 37. Doing something in place of or instead of someone else
  38. 38. Hoy portí, mañanapormí.
  39. 39. A means of Transportation
  40. 40. Viajaronporbarcohasta Tierra del Fuego.</li></ul>23<br />
  41. 41. Para<br /><ul><li>For whom something is done
  42. 42. Compraremos un regalopara Sara.
  43. 43. Destination
  44. 44. Francisco tomó el aviónpara San Juan.
  45. 45. The purpose for which something is done
  46. 46. Compréanteojosparavermejor.
  47. 47. To express an opinion
  48. 48. Para mi, los ejercicios son fantásticos.
  49. 49. To contrast or compare
  50. 50. Para la maestra de español, no sabe mucho de los matematicas.
  51. 51. To express idea of a deadline
  52. 52. Hay queterminar la tare paramañana.</li></ul>24<br />
  53. 53. THE CONDITIONAL<br />The conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably.<br />To express speculation about the past <br />Aquéldíacorreríanmás de veinticincokilómetros.<br />To express the future from the perspective of the past <br />Yosabíaqueabrirían la tienda a lassiete.<br />To express hypothetical actions or events which may or may not occur<br />Seríainteresanteestudiar chino.<br />To indicate what would happen were it not for some certain specific circumstance<br />Yoviajaríapero no tengodinero.<br />For polite use to soften requests <br />Por favor, ¿podríadecirme a quéhoraabre la gasolinera?<br />To ask for advice <br />¿CuálcompraríaUd.?<br />For reported speech: <br />Juan dijoqueterminaría el trabajo.<br />To express what would be done in a particular situation<br />¿Hablaríasinglés en España?No. Hablaríaespañol.<br />Uses of the Conditional<br />25<br />
  54. 54. Irregulars<br />With these irregular verbs, in the future tense, change the root and add the appropriate ending.<br />*Note that these irregulars are the same as the future tense<br />26<br />
  55. 55. Past Participle<br />Irregulars<br />Most past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify.<br />Note that for -er and -ir verbs, if the stem ends in a vowel, a written accent will be required.<br />creer - creídooír - oído<br />Note: this rule does not apply, and no written accent is required for verbs ending in -uir. (construir, seguir, influir, distinguir, etc.)<br />The past participle can be combined with the verb "ser" to express the passive voice. Use this construction when an action is being described, and introduce the doer of the action with the word "por.“<br />La casa fue construida por los carpinteros.<br />27<br />
  56. 56. Present Perfect<br />Irregular Past Participles<br />+ Past Participle<br />Expresses actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present<br />28<br />
  57. 57. Past Perfect<br />Irregular Past Participles<br />+ Past Participle<br />Expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.<br />29<br />
  58. 58. Present Perfect Subjunctive<br />The present perfect subjunctive is formed by using the present subjunctive of the helping verb haber with the past participle<br />The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive, and normally is used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense or command forms.<br />+ Past Participle<br />Me alegro de   I'm glad she (has) arrived.<br />DudoI doubt she (has) arrived.<br />NiegoI deny she (has) arrived.<br />queellahayallegado.<br />Es posibleIt's possible she (has) arrived.<br />Lo harédespuésI'll do it after she has arrived.<br />No lo hagas a menosDon't do it unless she has arrived.<br />30<br />
  59. 59. Tanto and Tan<br />Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs while tanto is used with nouns and verbs.<br />Tanto can also be feminine and plural. (Tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas)<br />31<br />
  60. 60. Impersonal ‘Se’<br />Use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />Se vendefruta en la frutería.<br />When using ‘se’, the verb is always in the third person<br />Aquí se hablaespañol.<br />‘Se’ can be used in all tenses<br />Se hizo mucho<br />Se hará mucho<br />Se habiahecho<br />32<br />
  61. 61. Saber vsConocer<br />33<br />
  62. 62. Informal commands<br />Informal commands are formed differently depending on whether the command is positive or negative. <br />Negative<br />Positive<br />Forming the Command<br />Forming the Command<br />The negative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive tú form. Add the word no before it.<br />The affirmative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud. form.<br />Irregulars<br />Irregulars<br />Irregulars are the same as the irregulars of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)<br />Irregulars<br />DOP + IOP Placement<br />DOP + IOP Placement<br />Add DOP and IOPs between no and the command. Ex: No la compres<br />Add DOP and IOPs to the end of the command. Ex: comprala<br />34<br />
  63. 63. Formal commands<br />All formal commands are formed the same way as the Ud. form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)<br />Irregulars<br />Negative<br />To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. (duh) Ex: Nocompre<br />Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive. <br />(see pages 39-40)<br />DOP + IOP Placement<br />For affirmative commands DOPs and IOPs are attached to the end of affirmative commands. In negative commands, they are added between the no and the command.<br />35<br />
  64. 64. Nosotros Commands<br />All nosotros commands are formed the same way as the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40)<br />Irregulars<br />Negative<br />To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. Ex: Nocompremos<br />Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive. <br />(see pages 39-40)<br />DOP + IOP Placement<br />Negative<br />Affirmative<br />Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added to the end of the command<br />An accent mark must be added to preserve pronunciation<br />Ex: Comer + lo -> Comámoslo<br />'Mono' verbs:<br />When adding nos to an affirmative nosotros command, you must take off the last -s in the verb (command).<br />Ex: Olvidar + nos -> Olvidémonos (Not: Olvidémosnos)<br />Adding "se":<br />When adding the pronoun se, the last -s must be removed from the verb (command).<br />Ex: Prestar + se + la -> Prestémosela. (Not: Prestémossela)<br />Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added between the no and the command.<br />Ex: Comer + lo (Negative) -> No locomamos<br />Since the pronouns are not attached to the command, there is no need for dropping and letters or adding any accent marks.<br />Mono Verbs<br />36<br />
  65. 65. The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action.<br />The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.<br />Because there must be some uncertainty or subjectivity to warrant the use of the subjunctive, you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity.<br />If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause introduces a quality of certainty or objectivity, the sentence will use the indicative mood in the second clause, since the sentence will be reporting something certain.<br />If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause does not introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity, the sentence will usually use the subjunctive mood in the second clause, since the sentence will not be reporting something certain.<br />Subjunctive<br />37<br />
  66. 66. Forming the Subjunctive<br />-ar Verbs<br />-er -ir Verbs<br />38<br />
  67. 67. The formula also works for verbs that have irregular "yo" forms in the present indicative.<br />conocer (yo conozco)conozco - o = conozc<br />conozc + a = conozcaconozc + as = conozcasconozc + a = conozcaconozc + amos = conozcamosconozc + áis = conozcáisconozc + an = conozcan<br />For -ar and -er stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that there is no stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms. <br />pensar (yo pienso)pienso - o = piens<br />piens + e = piensepiens + es = piensespiens + e = piensepens + emos = pensemospens + éis = penséispiens + en = piensen<br />For -ir stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i.<br />dormir (yo duermo)duermo - o = duerm<br />duerm + a = duermaduerm + as = duermasduerm + a = duermadurm + amos = durmamosdurm + áis = durmáisduerm + an = duerman<br />Zar -Car -Gar Verbs<br /><ul><li>For verbs that end in -zar, the z changes to c</li></ul>when it comes before the e.<br /><ul><li>For verbs that end in -car, the c changes to qu</li></ul>when it comes before the e.<br /><ul><li>For verbs that end in -gar, the c changes to gu</li></ul>when it comes before the e.<br />pagar<br />paguepaguespaguepaguemospaguéispaguen<br />Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars<br />39<br />
  68. 68. For verbs that end in -ger or -gir, the g changes to j when it comes before the letter a.<br />escoger<br />escojaescojasescojaescojamosescojáisescojan<br />For verbs that end in -guir, the gu changes to g when it comes before the letter a.<br />seguir (e:i)<br />sigasigassigasigamossigáissigan<br />For verbs that end in uir, add the letter y before the letter a.<br />huir<br />huyahuyashuyahuyamoshuyáishuyan<br />Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars<br />40<br />
  69. 69. 41<br />Here is a list of common impersonal expressions that introduce an aspect of uncertainty or subjectivity, and therefore trigger the use of the subjunctive.<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />
  70. 70. Subjunctive With Verbs of Emotion<br />The subjunctive is made of a main clause and a subordinate clause. The main clause may contain a verb of emotion such as hope, joy, surprise, fear,and pity. The subordinate clause contains the subjunctive.<br />When there is no change in the subject, use an infinitive.<br />Trigger words -><br />When there is a change in the subject, use the subjunctive.<br />42<br />
  71. 71. 43<br />Subjunctive: Conjunctions of Time<br />The following adverbial conjunctions deal with time, and are followed by the subjunctive when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future. If they introduce one which is viewed as completed or habitual, they are followed by the indicative instead.<br />
  72. 72. 44<br />Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />In English, we say "this" or "that" depending upon whether the object is close to us or not. In Spanish, we also say "this" and "that," but there is another, separate word used to mean "that one over there." This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room. Here are the three forms for "this" "that" and "that one over there."<br />Spanish has three demonstrative words<br />Juan reads this book. (adjective)Juan lee estelibro.<br />Juan reads this. (pronoun)Juan lee este.<br />Thatstatue is Greek.Esaestatuaesgriega.<br />That(one) is American.Esaesamericana.<br />These words can function ad adjectives or pronouns depending on how they are used.<br />
  73. 73. 45<br />Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />The demonstrative adjectives also have four forms:<br />estelibro (this book)estoslibros (these books)estapluma (this pen)estasplumas (these pens)<br />eselibro (that book)esoslibros (those books)esapluma (that pen)esasplumas (those pens)<br />aquellibro (that book over there)aquelloslibros (those books over there)aquellapluma (that pen over there)aquellasplumas (those pens over there)<br />Here are the corresponding demonstrative pronouns:<br />este (this one - masculine)estos (these ones - masculine)esta (this one - feminine)estas (these ones - feminine)<br />ese(that one - masculine)esos (those ones - masculine)esa (that one - feminine)esas (those ones - feminine)<br />aquel(that one over there - masc.)aquellos (those ones over there - masc.)aquella (that one over there - fem.)aquellas (those ones over there - fem.)<br />Each demonstrative pronoun also has a neuter form. They do not change for number or gender, and they are used to refer to abstract ideas, or to an unknown object.<br />esto (this matter, this thing)eso (that matter, that thing)aquello (that matter/thing over there)<br />

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