General Motors Stamping Plant Redevelopment


Published on

The framework and site design for a potentially new and exciting place to live near downtown Indianapolis Indiana; at the former General Motors Stamping Facility.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

General Motors Stamping Plant Redevelopment

  1. 1. South Street SquareAn Exploration of Building Typologies at the General Motors Stamping Facility in Indianapolis, IndianaDaniel LiggettMaster of Urban Design 2011Professor Bruce Race - FAIA, AICP, Associate Professor of PracticeAdvisor Michel Mounayar - RA, Associate Dean of College of Architecture and PlanningAdvisor Kevin Osburn - RLA, Principal at Rundell Ernstberger Associates
  2. 2. South Street SquareAn Exploration of Contemporary Building Typologies in Indianapolis, IndianaDaniel LiggettIntroduction “To most people thisOver the next 30 years, South Street contemporary urban housingSquare will provide Indianapolis design that supports the is their most treasuredwith its first contemporary, urban development of diverse and dense possession. It is not just neighborhoods. The proposedneighborhood. Located at the design helps our understanding bricks and motor or aexisting GM stamping facility, SouthStreet Square will be a mixed- how to adapt the GM site into a financial investment; it contemporary community.use neighborhood with a diverse is a vital part of theirrange of building typologies. Thetypologies are designed to create The research aims include a life. Home is crucial toa diverse, inclusive neighborhood. process that analyzes the specific everybody’s daily well demands of housing, evaluate howIt will offer both affordable and an existing framework plan can being.”market rate units, and provide be adapted to fit a set of buildingamenities such as park and open typologies, and the form and shape Tony Monk, forward “At Home in thespace and a vibrant commercial of the typologies on site. City”shopping district.The creative project explores41 2011 Creative Project Summary
  3. 3. breakdown of 64% ownership to 36% rental. However, the proximity of the South Street Square in relation to Indianapolis means the ratio between ownership and rental units should be reevaluated. This census information directed the land use type and density of building typologies in South Street Square. Furthermore, parking requirements vary depending upon rental or ownership housing. Additionally, building types inform parking policy. The proper amount of parking must be available for commercial services for the residents of South Street Square. The housing demographicConcept Diagram influenced all of these decisions.The site is located in the southwest the center of Indianapolis by using Population demographic thatregion of Indianapolis, Indiana. several attractions; Indianapolis impacted the building typologyHistorically, the city was laid Zoo, Victory Field, Lucas Oil Stadium objectives include age, householdout with four diagonal streets and the Indianapolis Convention size, and race. Census informationentering the city and ceasing Center. The clear constraint has shows that target rental age groupnear Monument Circle. Each become an opportunity. The is less than 35 years of age, whilediagonal street has its attraction development at the GM Stamping the target age for ownershipand character. Indiana Avenue plant studied how proper urban housing is between 45 and 54 yearsdeveloped into a place for IUPUI building typologies can form the of age. To support other ages andand health services, Massachusetts majority of the development site. cultures/races, the typology wasAvenue has small shops and varied throughout different districts of South Street Square.restaurants, and Fountain Square is Demographics 1.6known for artesian lofts. However,Kentucky Avenue has lost character Addressing the current populationwith the development of super and housing trends influencesblocks, including Lucas Oil, the several of the project’s objectives. Downtown Indianapolis As found through the United State 2.2convention center, and severalindustries. The development at Census information for Indianapolis,the GM site sought to reconnect to a rental to ownership housing Indianapolis (Balance)Downtown Living Range Indianapolis (Balence) Average Household Size 5+ Daniel Liggett 42
  4. 4. Washin gton S treet 4 2 3 4 1 5 1 Arc Park 4 Oliver Avenue 2 South Street Park 3 GM Reuse 4 Arc Street 5 White RiverFramework Master PlanSouth Street Square: Design FeaturesThere are two primary southwest street angle entering residential housing types.organizational features for the downtown Indianapolis.South Street Square master plan. There are two key gateways. One Other design features include is at the east end of South Street The first is South Street Walkway, districts, gateways, landmarks, Park and other is at the west endwhich is extended from historical nodes, circulation, and open spaces. of Arc Park, both on Arc Street.South Street, the most southern These provide urban design context These gateways are located inroad as part of the original layout to for building typologies. the commercial shopping districtthe city of Indianapolis. and pronounce the site to visitors. There are two types of character Elevated building corners cause aThe second organizing feature is districts in South Street Square. The compression and release effect onArc Street, a newly developed space first is the commercial shopping those traveling from the enclosuremeant to connect the development, district, found on Arc Street of Arc Street to the open park space.South Street Square, and major between the two transit stops.downtown attractions. A park The second are the park districts. A vertical landmark is located atis formed where South Street South Street Park and Arc Park vary intersection of South Street andWalkway and Arc Street intersect. in programming. South Street Arc Street. It is a vertical element,The street grid within the site is Park functions as a high activity designed into an intermodal transitorganized on a forty-five degree area for the transit stop. Arc Park facility. The streetcar stop, Southangle to optimize wind patterns is programmed as a space to relax Street Walkway, and commercialand breezes that move off the and designed to suit the general shopping district make for a mixWhite River and through the site. public for use of the library and of transportation alternatives.The street grid also runs parallel religious buildings. The districts Extruded building corners are alsoto Kentucky Avenue, the historical are surrounded by an array of expressed as gateway elements.43 2011 Creative Project Summary
  5. 5. Arc Street, from transit stop to transit stop, is the central address for South Street Square. It is a street that functions as a linear space with a series of interconnected nodes. There are several different types of circulation modes within and beyond South Street Square including pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular, and streetcars. Vehicular Routes To improve pedestrian circulation, Secondary Routes blocks were reduced from Greenways the typical 500 foot widths of Railways Indianapolis blocks, to 375 foot andFramework Circluation 150 foot blocks. Smaller block sizes support a more walkable system for pedestrians. The smaller block typology also allows for bicycles to easily navigate South Street Square with safely designed crosswalks and celebrated streets. To promote walkability and biking, South Street Walkway has been designed as a non-motorized pedestrian and bikeway that extends to the White River and the Public Institutions newly developed portion of the Hardscape Space White River State Park (see Figure Softscape Space 5, 7 and 9). South Street allows Public Commerce for pedestrians, bicyclists, runners, Destination Point joggers, and people of all activitiesFramework Public Space to easily access South Street Park, the commercial shopping district, and Arc Park, which are nestled within the interior of South Street Square development. South Street provides a friendly way for bikers to travel. Other street types include bike lanes. There are four street types including alleys (and service alleys), residential streets, collector streets, and Arc Street. Alleys service commercial and residential areas Public Space Low Dense Residential and provide access to parking. High Dense Residential Light Industrial Residential streets have bike lanes on-street. Residential streets haveFramework Land Use Daniel Liggett 44
  6. 6. 22 17 23 18 24 19 21 16 12 20 8 13 14 4 9 10 15 7 11 5 3 6 1 2South Street Square Master Plan1 Arc Transit Stop 9 Mixed Use Plex 17 Micro-police station1 Oliver School2 10 Mews 18 Reflecting Pool3 Arc Park Gateway 11 Courtyard with Parking 19 Multimodal Hub4 12 Apartments 20 Transit Authority Church 13 Plex Service & Parking 21 South Street Walkway5 Arc Park (Parking Under) 14 Shophouse 22 Anchor Retail6 Community Library 15 Doubled Loaded Units 23 Market Housing7 Celebrated street-type 16 Arc Street Gateway 24 Reuse GM Plant8 Townhouses45 2011 Creative Project Summary
  7. 7. just two travel lanes with on streetparking. This street type is designedto provide parking and a peacefulstreet for residents.The collector street is designed toprovide efficient travel within andthrough South Street Square. Theyare critical for the developmentof special use zones, such as themicro-police station and transitauthority which require quickegress and ingress of emergencyvehicles.Arc Street is a “complete street”as it offers plenty of space andsafe movement for a variety ofcirculation types. Pedestrians havelarge wide sidewalks, cafés, plantingbeds that cool the environment,and public seating. Bike users have Arc Street in Action!a dedicated bike space, much likethat of the Indianapolis CulturalTrail, which safely separates bikesfrom traffic. On street parking isavailable for commercial businesses. The South Street Square project townhouses, and shop housing.The streetcar also has its own illustrates how building typologies Each typology has a list of standardsdedicated space that makes two work within a framework plan. to follow for development. Thesestop in South Street Square. The project shows how typologies design objectives were used to form a contemporary district with a formulate standards:The plan outlines public and private cohesive spaces. Building typologies • Densityrespond to their open space setting The project site is 40 acres with • Land usein terms of height, ground floor various building types. The • Location in Contextuse, and orientation. Residential typologies are dependent on • Parkingbuildings facing parks have deeper several factors, including land • Transit Oriented Designsetbacks. Arc Street spans the two use. The land uses found in South • Street Typesparks and is a public green space as Street Square include institutional, • Park & Open Spacewell. industrial, commercial mixed-use, • Height residential mixed-use, park and • SetbackAn additional plaza contains the open space, and residential land • Transparency & Form of 1st Floorsoutheastern-most transit stop. This use.transit stop is near to the school. These topics were used to developPrivate green spaces are within each Design Topics for Typologies design standards for South Streetlot and block. These private green Square.spaces would include the open The typological exploration ofspace in plex, terrace, and shop South Street Square includeshousing. terrace housing, plex housing, courtyard, mew housing, Daniel Liggett 46
  8. 8. Typology Standards The building types for South Street Square address contemporary urban forms. Standards and guidelines include height, setback, and transparency of buildings floors. The height standard for the building typologies is linked with density. Mixed-use Ownership Housing buildings are taller than single use residential buildings. The first floors of commercial buildings are to be the tall and transparent to promote a flexible use for a variety of potential commercial businesses. The first floor façades are to be visually accessible from the sidewalk and retail. The building setbacks for residential buildings reflect the need for Ownership & Rental Housing privacy. The further the setback from the right-of-the-way, the more public to private transition space is available for porches, stoops, and patios. Mixed-Use & Ownership - Rental Housing47 2011 Creative Project Summary
  9. 9. Typology Features Infrastructure 2% 12% 6% IndustrialPublic buildings, such ascommercial and government Park & Open Space 5% 66%buildings form promote public useand access. 9% Special Use CommercialIn order to create diverse and Residentialinclusive neighborhoods, theproposed land use and density for Land Use BreakdownSouth Street Square was designedto attract a variety of people. 4% 3% MewsAlso, an enhanced public realm,invited people to experience the Townhousesspace. Higher densities and a mix 12% 25% Shophousesof uses activate the public realm.Private “back” areas are more Courtyardeffectively used for service andparking. 27% 20% Plex TerraceTypology form also ensures “eyes-on-the-street” meaning the area Residential Typology Breakdownwill be safer, as everyone acts asan informal watchman. The plan cooling systems were integrated to be as transparent as possible.has commercial mixed-use on Arc into buildings. The “skyline” of the The reason for this is twofold. First,Street. By increasing density at this development is to be pyramidal transparent first floors activatearea and providing shopping, it in shape. The tallest buildings, or the street. In terms of sustainablebecomes the primary destination highest density, are located at Arc systems, the first and second floorsfor residents and visitors. Street. The buildings decrease in are more likely to be shaded by height to be energy efficient for street trees. Natural environmentalBuilding type design can contribute optimal use of day lighting and strategies can be used to passivelytoward a reduction in greenhouses passive energy systems. cool the building. Upper floorsgases and consumption of fossil receive more direct sunlight andfuels. To achieve energy efficiency, Floor transparency standards consist of less transparent material.natural lighting and passive encourage the first several floorsArc Street Section Daniel Liggett 48
  10. 10. Mixed-use Plexhouse 60’ min. -- Townhouse Shophouse Residential Plexhouse 36’ min. -- 36’ min. -- 24’ min. -- 24’ min. -- 24’ min. --Height 14’ min. -- 5 story -- 12’ min. -- 10’ min. 15’ max.-- 10’ min.Setbackfrom street R.O.W. W 3 story -- 2 story -- 2 story --Density = 1 unitParking surface/tuckunder space on street on street & park between on alley & park between Building Types they are flexible in using alleys to economic advantages. Socially, help free the street right-of-way families can offer the units to family South Street Square includes from additional vehicles. Terrace or friends, to keep them close to seven building typologies that are homes and plex units are mixed home if need be. Economically, terrace, plex, courtyard, apartments, use typologies found on Arc Street. they provide affordable units to townhouses, shop homes, and They create an attractive edge to those who are looking to rent mews. the commercial shopping district studio-type spaces. The rent found between the two streetcar produced each month by these Terrace homes are approximately stops in South Street Square. units provides an incentive to create 27% of the housing types. They and maintain the success of mew come in a variety of forms, and Mews are smaller one or story typologies. can be adapted to mixed-use units that are located in the alley development. Alleys provide between two rows of terrace or plex Rental building types include service access to terrace homes and units. They have one service alley courtyard and stacked flat commercial blocks removing cars and one circulation alley on either units. These typologies can offer from the public right-of-way. side. Mews are often associated affordable living, with an increase with the plex or terrace house in in density. Most of these units are Plex units allow for a variety in which it shares the lot. In South close to public transportation and occupancies. Second story walkups Street Square, 33 mew units are have lower parking requirements. and basement units offer potential provided less than 100 feet from Eight development acres are for a mix in market and affordable parks and the commercial shopping dedicated to these two typologies living units. Much like terrace units, district. Mews have social and and provide living for almost one 49 2011 Creative Project Summary
  11. 11. Mews Mixed-use Terrace Terrace House Chicago Courtyard 60’ min. -- Apartments 36’ min. -- 36’ min. -- 36’ min. -- Use Req. -- 24’ min. -- 12’ min. -- 5 story --3’ - 6’ min. 15’ min. 10’ min. 10’ min. 3 story -- 3 story -- + +1 story -- + no parking provided on alley on street on street & park betweenthousand people. Conclusions social and economic activities andTownhouses and shophouses Urban design guidelines support community connections.are designed for market rate and quality design because all designersaffordable ownership. In South and developers play by the same 3.Street Square, 3.5 development rules. Urban design typology Housing should support andacres are included for these housing standards can create consistent facilitate new living strategies.types. These building types help form that supports place making Contemporary design can beprovide market rate and affordable objectives and values. These responsive to new needs and lifeunits. conclusions are illustrated by the styles, even if the base idea for each creative project effort: typology is classic in nature. 1. Urban design guidelines and standards are important for mixed use districts with residential, commercial, office, industrial, or special uses. 2. The guidelines and standards support place making. They shape the form of buildings to respond to Daniel Liggett 50