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Service Level Agreement


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Overview of Service Level Agreements (SLA) and how to manage a data center by SLA\'s.

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Service Level Agreement

  1. 1. Business Continuity Mt Xia Inc. May 2011 Service Level Agreements 615.556.0456
  2. 2. Scope <ul><li>This presentation is limited to discussions of Service Level Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>This is presented as an insight to the information technology management techniques used by very large data center operators </li></ul><ul><li>This is not a procedural plan or operational tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation is intended to invoke discussions regarding requirements for managing expanding IT operations </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of a business function approach to system administration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Perspective <ul><li>Business function owner is a customer of the service provider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function owner is typically the business function department manager or an application support team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function owners do NOT dictate architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function owner does NOT own the hardware or infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service provider is typically the information technology department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers determine the infrastructure and architecture to fulfill the requirements of each instance of an SLA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers own and manage the hardware and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The relationship between business function owner and service provider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should NOT be adversarial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but it should be by-the-book </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Perspective (continued) <ul><li>Service is provided according to a mutual agreement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms and Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All systems should be included: production, pre-production, test, development, proof-of-concept, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>set expectations for all parties and all systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Level Agreement High Level Outline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles and Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requesting Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours of Coverage, Response Times & Escalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance and Service Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing and Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approvals and Signatures </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Definition of Terms <ul><li>Business Continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies – those things that shall be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines – those things that should be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards – technical specifications derived from policies and guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures – step-by-step instructions for implementation of standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource planning and deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Impact Analysis (BIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Level Agreements </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Terms (continued) <ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function recovery between geographically separated data centers using some sort of storage replication between the data centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The output of disaster recovery planning is a disaster recovery project plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to minimize downtime for business functions, not systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function recovery times and maximum allowable data loss is specified during the business impact analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function fail over between two or more physical frames within the same data center using a single shared storage location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of single points of failure (SPOF's) are a necessary part of HA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is to minimize downtime for business functions, not systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is NOT non-stop computing, downtime will be experienced during fail over </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of Terms (continued) <ul><li>Business Impact Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An examination of ALL business functions to determine those regarded as critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of recovery time objectives for each business function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of recovery point objectives for each business function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of support tier associated with each business function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of Service Level Agreement associated with each support tier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Level Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An agreement between a business function owner and the service provider which designates the amount of time, on an annualized basis, the business function will be available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversely, the SLA also designates the amount of time, on an annualized basis, for which the business function will NOT be available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This should not be regarded as allowable downtime, but rather as mandatory downtime that requires management approval to reschedule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The SLA is associated with a business function, not with any particular machine, system, or frame. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Definition of Terms (continued) <ul><li>Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A physical computing device, may host one or more partitions or logical systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A logical grouping of resources such as CPU, Memory, network and SAN adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be shared between multiple systems simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated and Deallocated on an as needed basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLA may address number of CPUs provided, not underlying processing units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned to a single system at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be allocated and deallocated on an as needed basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be reassigned during off-peak processing times </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Definition of Terms (continued) <ul><li>Virtual I/O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual representations of physical adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be shared between multiple systems simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live Partition Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An IBM Power6 capability for moving a live running partition from one frame to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires virtualized I/O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires equal or greater CPU and Memory on target frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires synchronization of slot numbers between frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a high availability or disaster recovery solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to eliminate business function downtime utilizing two healthy systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planned maintenance outages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preemptive problem management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example Architecture Support Tiers <ul><li>Limited offerings under standardized SLA’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 : BC / HA / DR / HA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTO / RPO / Uptime / Downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 2: BC / HA / DR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTO / RPO / Uptime / Downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 3: BC / DR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTO / RPO / Uptime / Downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 4: BC / HA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTO / RPO / Uptime / Downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 5: BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTO / RPO / Uptime / Downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not attempt to be all things for all purposes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Standardized Architecture - Tier 1: BC / HA / DR / HA
  12. 12. Standardized Architecture - Tier 2: BC / HA / DR
  13. 13. Standardized Architecture - Tier 3: BC / DR
  14. 14. Standardized Architecture - Tier 4: BC / HA
  15. 15. Standardized Architecture - Tier 5: BC
  16. 16. Standardized Service Level Agreements <ul><li>Business function owner is NOT required to comply with predefined SLA’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But they will be responsible for finding/hiring another service provider </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each support Tier, define the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity and Quality of Support Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data retention periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data replication methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of Performance Monitoring statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Control Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System monitoring data needed to measure SLA compliance </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Standardized Service Level Agreements (continued) <ul><li>Uptime / Downtime Compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downtime specified by the SLA is a compliance requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rescheduling requires management approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missed downtime ( due to request by the business function owner) suspends SLA compliance requirements until the downtime is performed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missed downtime ( due to request by the business function owner) is credited to the service provider for future outages, regardless of whether it is rescheduled for a later date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any outages during a suspended SLA is charged against the business function owner, not the service provider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The SLA can only be re-activated by performing the missed downtime, or by performing the next scheduled downtime. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outages associated with mandatory SLA downtime is scheduled a year in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates excuses that scheduled downtime was not known about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates excuses for scheduling conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Standardized Service Level Agreements (continued) <ul><li>Business function owner or customer is paying for a Service Level Agreement, not uptime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uptime is provided in specified blocks and associated with support tiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downtime is mandatory for SLA compliance, whether or not maintenance is performed during the outage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer does NOT specify desired uptime, they select an SLA for their business function which comes with a specific amount of uptime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional uptime requires a support tier upgrade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May require additional infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require additional system resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require additional personnel resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require additional vendor support availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost increases exponentially with uptime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uptime is valuable and costly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is not given away just because there is no pending maintenance to perform </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Standardized Service Level Agreements (continued) <ul><li>SLA Hardware Provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU can be guaranteed by number of CPU's (virtual or logical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying processing units associated with CPU's is NOT guaranteed or referenced by SLA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing units are dynamic and controlled by service provider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unused memory may be reallocated dynamically to other LPARs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>may be shared or dedicated depending upon business function requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-tiered to accommodate tiered service structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sync or Async replication between SANs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape with automated replication between data centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape with off-site storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local Tape only </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Standardized Service Level Agreements (continued) <ul><li>SLA Performance Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business function uptime / downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT measured by system or frame uptime / downtime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of service is measured and analysed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department and personnel performance reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and bonus reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Center Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent upon standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Level Agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Support Tiers and Architectures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and hardware requirements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment, configuration, and support methodologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auditing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>Service Level Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize all business functions into a limited number of SLA's </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Benefits include standardized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1 support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Center Automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance reviews (department and personnel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus calculations </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Contact Information <ul><li>Mt Xia Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dana French, President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>615.556.0456 </li></ul></ul>