Where do agile leaders come from


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Where do agile leaders come from

  1. 1. Where do agile leaders come from?Kati Vilkkikati.vilkki@nsn.com Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki1 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  2. 2. Nokia Siemens Networks • Joint venture of Nokia and Siemens, acquired Motorola’s wireless networks infrastructure business in 2011 • Started operations on April 1, 2007 • €14 bn net sales in 2011 • 120+ years of telecom experience • c. 63,000 employees* • Strong focus on mobile broadband and customer experience management • > 80 out of the top 100 operators worldwide • 150+ countries • 6 billion mobile subscriptions around the world with 1.2 billion subscriptions for mobile broadband services * As reported on 30.6.2012 Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki2 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  3. 3. All models are wrong, but some areuseful George E.P. Box Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki3 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  4. 4. Contents• Servant leadership• Why self-organization?• What impacts self-organization?• Power• Empowerment – personal relationship to power• Impact of leadership style• Some tools• How to make this real? Experiences of changing leadership culture Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki4 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  5. 5. Servant leadership Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki5 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  6. 6. Leadership as a service• Leadership as a service to help us to reach our goals, to be successful• Any act, which helps us to move forward towards our goal • Anything that helps us to make sense or take action • Any one can act!• Shared leadership – from hierarchical relationships to networks of equals and working together – Agreeing to lead and to be lead Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki6 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  7. 7. Important leadership tasks• Ensuring business profitability / success• Creating an engaging vision of what we do• Mentoring and coaching• Leading the culture• Creating an environment for people to thrive and succeed in Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki7 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  8. 8. Why self-organization? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki8 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  9. 9. Energy• Think back to a situation where you felt full of energy at work – What was the situation? What happened? – What did you do? – Who else was involved? – What contributed to you having high energy?• In pairs – Tell your story to your pair – Listen to you pair’s story• Discuss your experiences together; are there any common things? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki9 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  10. 10. What motivates us?• Autonomy• Mastery• Purpose• Basic factors which are needed – Adequate rewarding – Job security – lack of these can destroy motivation but these will not increase motivation Public Daniel H. Pink: Drive – the Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki10 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  11. 11. What impacts self-organization? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki11 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  12. 12. Components of self-organization Organization gives the team the opportunity to make decisions, to exercise power and take responsibility. Management and the Opportunity organizational culture have key role in creating the opportunity Team understands the Skills, purpose (goals, targets), the whole (how we link to others), competence the domain (product) and product development. Team knows how to work together. People in the team want to Motivation work in the team, take the power and the responsibility Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki12 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  13. 13. Increasing self-organization Organizational and leadership culture Individual skills and Team practices choices Management and organizational support Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki13 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  14. 14. Power Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki14 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  15. 15. Exercise• Discuss in your group – What is power? – Where does power come from? – What determines whether some one has power or not? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki15 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  16. 16. One definition of powerPower is the Requiresability to take • Empowerment, inner feeling ofthe needed freedom and choiceactions to • Self-awareness,fulfill own understanding of own needs andneeds feelings • Emotional intelligence Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki16 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  17. 17. Related concepts• Status – Position within a group – Based on vague things, which differ from group to group (e.g. wealth, title, prestige, physical strength, education, skills …)• Status hierarchy (= pecking order)• Power difference – power distance – Are people expected to behave differently depending on their position in the status hierarchy? Are they expected to behave differently towards people who are “lower” compared to people who are “higher”?• Dominance – “I can make you obey”. The desire to dominate and dominating behavior• Authority, authorization – Agreement to decide about or control some resources Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki17 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  18. 18. Who has power?• Power arises in need: in a relationship the one who is needed more, has more power – rapidly changing, seldom equal• Enabling / empowering use of power: try to get as many needs of different stakeholders met as possible• Restricting use of power: only the needs of few (“the powerful”) matter Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki18 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  19. 19. Power bases - why do we give power to others?• Rewarding power – I give power to you, if I belief that you can do something good to me• Coercive power – I give power to you, if I belief that you can do some harm to me• Legitimate power – I give power to you based on either implicit or explicit social contract• Expert power – I give power to you because I belief you know better than I• Referent power – Is based on personal integrity, being perceived as a role model – I give power to you, because I respect you Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki John R.P. French & Bertram Raven19 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  20. 20. Illusions and mental models related to power• Illusion of control – “By deciding something we can make others do it” – Often manifested in organizational planning and reporting practices, steering groups and committees – Means to avoid helplessness, uncertainty and anxiety• Power is at the top of the hierarchy – “We have to wait until they decide” – Often manifested in people waiting, complaining but not taking action – Means to avoid risk-taking and related anxiety Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki21 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  21. 21. Reality• Every one’s power is limited to the amount of people we can influence (circle of influence)• In organizations people usually have a lot more power than they think they have Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki22 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  22. 22. Empowered people working together in self-organized teams for a purpose Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki23 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  23. 23. Empowerment – personal relationshipto power Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki24 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  24. 24. Thinking tools Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki25 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  25. 25. I have to … or I choose to … because … Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki26 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  26. 26. The rule of three Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki27 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  27. 27. Empowerment – mmmm??Accountability - yes Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki28 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  28. 28. Accountability – what does it mean?• How is being / feeling accountable visible in a person’s behavior?• How can you see whether I feel accountable or not?• Accountability and responsibility - how are they connected? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki29 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  29. 29. Accountability – where does it come from?• Think back to a situation when you felt really accountable for doing something – What contributed to you feeling accountable?Discuss:• What promotes accountability?• What prevents accountability? Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki30 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  30. 30. Organizational practices• Very often the very practices, which are intended to increase a accountability, actually destroy it• We can’t make anyone feel accountable but we can create an environment, which fosters accountability – or kills it• Being accountable requires self-discipline• Accountability and power go hand in hand Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki31 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  31. 31. Empowering leadership style Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki32 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  32. 32. Exercise• The leadership style has a high impact on people’s level of empowerment• Think back in your experience of being lead by others• Collect examples of leadership actions which have  Increased empowerment  Decreased empowerment Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki33 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  33. 33. Getting aligned• People do things to satisfy their needs – and we all have many different kinds of needs.• To be able to influence others, we need to understand what they need – Win – win• How can we find out what others need? Ask  What is important to you?  What do you want to accomplish?  What is your motivation of …?  How can I help? What can I do for you? – Guess and check – Do an experiment and observe Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki34 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  34. 34. Compliance vs. engagement• Command and control type of management results in compliance – Main tools for “motivating” are target setting & rewarding – Carrots and sticks• Engagement and commitment requires leadership based on increasing autonomy – People have control over what, when, how and with whom they do the work  Task, time, technique, team – Autonomous and interdependent at the same time Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki35 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  35. 35. Influencing others• We can’t change other people, we can’t “make anyone do anything they don’t want to do” – and be happy about it – We cant make anyone do willingly and enthusiastically anything they dont want to do• When people are coerced or feel pushed, they fight, fake, ignore or in best case comply – There is no commitment or ownership – Very low energy and engagement• As a leader, ask yourself: is this enough or do I need people to be committed and engaged (to get what I need)?• Unfortunately, managers are often not aware of the impact of their actions on others. Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki36 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  36. 36. Ways of influencing others• Expose people to new information – Ask questions  Provoke new thought processes – Educate, train – Show new ways – Give feedback• Ask people to do things, make requests and proposals – “Do this” vs. “I need this because …Could you help me?” – People are often very willing to help (if they can) if they know why what you ask is important to you – Ask people to do an experiment• Change your own behavior – Changing one part of the systems gives room / pressure for other parts to change, too – Show example Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki37 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  37. 37. Exercise• Whom would you like to influence in order to change the leadership culture in your organization?• Think of at least three things to do 1. Expose people to new information  Ask questions  Train, introduce new concepts  Show new ways  Give feedback 2. Make a request  Be specific & concrete 3. Change your own behavior Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki38 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  38. 38. Emerging leaders Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki39 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  39. 39. Leadership• How do you recognize a leader? Look behind• True leaders emerge, they do not come by appointment• Leadership is about influencing others in an empowering way – Expose people to new information, ask people to do things, change your own behavior – Create the will to follow – Create engagement and enthusiasm• Communicate direction – Engaging vision – Compelling reason to change – Clear enough, sufficiently fuzzy• Facilitate harvesting collective intelligence Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki40 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  40. 40. Why is it that …• Most managers are smart people• Most managers have the best interest of the company at heart• So why does so much bad management happen?• Low self-awareness• False assumptions• Long feedback cycles Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki41 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  41. 41. Working with• Creating Win-Win situations – Getting my needs met while meeting others’ needs – Acknowledging needs and working for a new solution where more needs get met – Increasing the amount of empowering power in relationships• Communicate with compassion and clarity• Listen with empathy and respect• Building relationships based on trust and integrity – Honor your agreements Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki42 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  42. 42. Making conscious choices Increases dependency Increases self- and resistance, reduces organization and often some times anxiety causes some anxiety Telling the way to find solution Open questions Focus on Plan how you could use pair- What would help you forward process programming now? (“how” the Let’s discuss the pro’s and con’s What other options there might of these design solutions be? Supports team finds the solution) Let’s discuss the values and What is happening? self- working agreements for our team organization Telling the solution “Loaded” questions, proposals Focus on Use pair-programming Do you think pair-programming content Design solution A is the right one would help here? (“what” the These are the values and working Does solution A meet the criteria? team does, the agreements for our team Some teams have found team Increases values and working agreements dependency solution) useful. What do you think? Directive Supportive (Telling what or how to do) (Helping the team to find the Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki solution on what or how to do)43 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  43. 43. Should I interfere? Not present What are the Observe consequences if I Ask open interfere? questions • To me • To the team • To the task at hand Tell your • To the customer and observation to the company the team What are the Ask loaded consequences of not questions interfering? Make proposals Tell the team what to do Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki44 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  44. 44. Learning new ways Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki45 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  45. 45. Learning process Result Work with others (experience, consequence) Action, work Reflection Act differently Reflect, get • Conceptual feedback, analysis understand deeply • Forming new what happened working theory Making sense, findingLearning process meaning, explain whyconsists of several cycles Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki New theory, concepts, ideas, training, reading46 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 Learn with others, discuss, read, share experiences
  46. 46. Different levels of the learning process• Individual level • Learning (reading, training, reflection)• Team level – build a leadership team • Joint reflection, creating concepts – close the learning loop • Agreeing on actions • Working together as a team• Organizational level • Organizational practices and culture • Feedback loops • Cross-organizational and cross-level dialogue and cooperation Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki47 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  47. 47. Changing old habits (changing the culture)• Talk together about the new values and principles and what should change – Why do we need to change? How do we know we have been successful?• Think together about concrete behaviors which would reflect the values• Make agreements that support behaving in the new way• Be consistent, do not give up – Unlearning old habits and learning new ones takes time – Truly understanding the consequences and what a value means in practice, in every day actions takes time• Reflect together – Have we followed the new ways of working? What has happened? Why? – Make new agreements, take second round of learning Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki48 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  48. 48. Different levels and cycles in sync Daily actions and choices Actions reflect values Practices Values become real in actions Principles Mind-set, attitudes, principles bridge between practices and values Values, basic assumptions Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki49 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  49. 49. Examples Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki50 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  50. 50. Improving team work, leadership andorganizational learning• Training and coaching combined with doing actual work• Both group level and individual consultations• Align development activities of different levels of organisation Teams Coaching Department Leadership Teams Manager groups forums Unit Leadership Team Cross-organizational project team arraigns coaching and other support, creates materials, analyses progress Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki51 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  51. 51. Coaching program for team coaches, part I Self-study and reflection of own learning Practical development work Participation in team coach meetings Modeling Report / study Development operational of results plan environment 1. 1. Changing 2. 2. Start Cons module Session End Session ultati Consult ation on • Organizational Different topics: culture • How to end• Purpose • Own role as a coach • Change • Role of a team coaching• Objectives • Analyzing need for management coach assignments, in teams projects or and change / • Resistance motivation development • Managing teams • Leadership • Self-evaluation• Commitment • Change in thinking own work to coaching and leadership load • Empowerment • Final• How to get • Systematic • How to define evaluations of • Facilitation started? improvement success criteria the coaching• 1 day • Development plan • Conflict • 2 days process for own project resolution • ½ -1day Public • 2 days • ½ day Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki52 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 Duration 6-8 months
  52. 52. Example # 2 Self-organizing Ways of working agile teams (1 d) workshops for teams Introduction to self- organizing Self-organizing Ways of agile teams agile teams working (2 h) and line workshops for manager role LT’s (2 d) Becoming a coach (2 d+2 d) Boot-camp on coaching self-organizing teams (3 d) Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki53 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  53. 53. Self-organizing Scrum teams and line manager role Day 1 Day 2 Start Start Coach’s role Getting oriented Direction and boundaries for Concepts the team Empowerment, self- Ways of working organization, power Team working skills Lunch Leadership tasks in lean Decision making Aspects of line manager role Healthy conflicts Using observations What do teams need from Feedback their environment? Influencing others Line manager role in agile and lean Finish Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki54 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  54. 54. Example # 3 Call for all All hands sessions Work Reflect Discussions in What does this teams Continuous mean for us? improvement What do we Leadership want to do? workshops Change Improve agent workshops Coaching sessions for leaders SW craftsmanship workshops in teams Coaching on engineering skills Kick-offs: how do we work together Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki55 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012
  55. 55. THANK YOU! Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki56 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 Dept. / Author / Date
  56. 56. Recommended books on lean and management• Lean Software Development - Poppendieck• From Concept to Cash: Implementing Lean Software Development - Poppendieck• Leading Lean SW development: Results are not the point by Mary and Tom Poppendieck• Lean Product and Process Development - Allen C. Ward – Distills what might be termed "cornerstones" from the practices of lean product developers, most notably Toyota and its partners, which differ remarkably from conventional practice• Managing the design factory by Donald G. Reinertsen• The Principles of Product Development Flow by Donald G. Reinertsen• The Machine that changed the world - Womack – Book introduce the word "Lean" to the world. Comparison of companies in the car industry• Lean Thinking - Womack – Summary of the lean thinking concepts.• The Toyota way – Jeffrey K. Liker• Durward K. Sobek II., Art Smalley: Understanding A3 Thinking: A Critical Component of Toyotas PDCA Management System• Toyota Kata by Mike Rother• Measuring and Managing Performance in Organizations – Classic MUST-READ on metrics, measurement and incentive systems• Gary Hammel: The Future of Management• Jeffrey Pfeffer, Robert I. Sutton: Hard facts, Dangerous Half-truths & Total Nonsense Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki57 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 Agile and lean mgmt / KV
  57. 57. Leading teams• Christopher M. Avery: Teamwork Is an Individual Skill – For anyone who want to improve their team experience by understanding better their own impact – helps to make concious choices• J. Richard Hackman: Leading Teams. Setting the Stage for Great Performances – What do teams need from their environment & how to lead teams• Kimball Fisher: Leading self-directed work teams, a guide for developing new team leadership skills – How does the role of a team leader change from the role of a supervisor. Examples are from manufacturing, but are general.• Patrick Lencioni: The 5 dysfunctions of a team and Overcoming the 5 dysfunctions of a team – Two books on how to improve the way your team works. Eventhough the examples are mostly from leadership teams, findings apply to other teams, too.• Marshall B. Rosenberg: Non-violent Communication – For anyone who wants to learn to communicate better• Sam Kaner: Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making – Facilitation techniques and tools for many kinds of situations• Jean Tabaka: Collaboration Explained. Facilitation Skills for Software Project Leaders – Facilitation techniques and tools for Scrum and other agile events• Eshter Derby & Diana Larsen: Agile Retrospectives, Making good teams Great – Some ideas on how to improve your retrospectives Public Agile 2012 / Kati Vilkki58 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2012 © Agile and lean mgmt / KV