What is Project Management?• What is a project? – a project consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.• What is project management? – Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, and managing resources to achieve specific goals.
What is Project Management?• The primary challenge is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time, and cost.• The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and integrate the inputs necessary to meet pre- defined objectives.
Basic Project ManagementProcess Goal: What do you want to accomplish? Scope: What are the boundaries around what you want to accomplish? What’s in and what’s out? Estimate: What will it take for you to accomplish the goal? Do we need to change scope? Plan: When and how do you do what you estimated? Who’s going to help? Execute: Do what you planned and manage any changes as you go Review: See if you accomplished your goals
Getting a project started Business case – this tells you why you should complete the project. It has a cost/benefit analysis, pros and cons of completing the project, and other information you need to get started. You also have an initial schedule and key partners outlined in the business case. Project Charter – this is a document that sets up the project based on the business case but also includes more information like risks, issues, assumptions, and dependencies.
Project Risks Risks are things that could happen that hurt your project. A way to define risk is to compare the probability of occurrence to the impact of risk Your job is to define risks and manage them through acceptance, avoidance, or mitigation
Project Issues Issues are realized risks and/or unexpected things that cause your project to be late, cost more, or change what your are delivering Issues aren’t mitigated – they are resolved. Issues are captured and recorded in an issue log which allow you to: Have a safe and reliable method for the team to raise issues. Track and assign responsibility to specific people for each issue. Analyze and prioritize issues more easily. Record issue resolution for future reference and project learning. Monitor overall project health and status.
Project Dependencies Dependencies are things your project depends on or has a tie to that must be considered during the project initiation and through its execution They could be people, processes, other businesses, policies and/or tools that must be part of the overall picture of the project They must be identified upfront so all risks and issues with them can be addressed
Scope – What is it? Scope - The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions Scope is one of the most difficult things to manage in the project. As the project is being executed, new and different requirements can be discovered. If requirements are not completely defined and described and if there is no effective change control in a project, scope or requirement
Work Breakdown Structures Scope must be broken down into executable chunks of work A work breakdown structure shows what needs to be done and helps contain scope It will define the work in organized groupings and show you how to organize your project
Requirements analysis What are requirements? A requirement is a singular documented physical and functional need that a particular product or service must be or perform. Requirements help define the scope of your project and help support the delivery of the work breakdown structure When analysis is done, documented requirements are the result of the activity. You will now have a list of items that must be addressed to successfully complete the project
Estimating Accurate time estimation is a crucial skill in project management. Without it, you wont know how long your project will take, and you wont be able to get commitment from the people who need to sign it off. Step 1: Understand Whats Required Step 2: Order These Activities Step 3: Decide Who You Need to Involve Step 4: Make Your Estimates
Schedule development - Inputs Personal and project calendars – Understanding working days, shifts, and resource availability is critical to completing a project schedule. Description of project scope – From this, you can determine key start and end dates, major assumptions behind the plan, and key constraints and restrictions. Project risks – You need to understand these to make sure theres enough extra time to deal with identified risks. Lists of activities and resource requirements – Understanding the resource capabilities and experience you have available – as well as company holidays and staff vacations – will affect the schedule.
Scheduling Tools Schedule Network Analysis i.e. Gantt Charts Allows you to see tasks vs. the timeline These are created using software tools like Microsoft Project, Primavera, and OpenProj Critical Path Analysis This method calculates the earliest and latest possible start and finish times for project activities It estimates the dependencies among them to create a schedule of critical activities and dates.
Critical Path Analysis Critical Path Analysis and PERT are powerful tools that help you to schedule and manage complex projects Critical Path Analysis (CPA) or the Critical Path Method (CPM) helps you to plan all tasks that must be completed as part of a project. They act as the basis both for preparation of a schedule, and of resource planning. We’ll do an exercise using this method
Stakeholder Analysis &Management Identify Your Stakeholders Prioritize Your Stakeholders Understand Your Key Stakeholders
Status reporting Nobody reads it, why do it? Facilitatescommunications Establishes a rhythm for project performance analysis Maintains focus on the project team Best Practices Format Project Metrics Timing Re-enforce the message
Dashboards Dashboards are great tools to summarize project information Dashboards are used to communicate the health of the project to stakeholders They require project teams to enter information into a centralized system for reporting and analytics
What is change management Change management is a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. It is an organizational process aimed at helping employees to accept and embrace changes in their current business environment. In project management, change management refers to a project management process where changes to a project are formally introduced and approved
Implementing Changes Acknowledge the change is needed Do an impact analysis and assess the risks Communicate impact analysis and risks to all stakeholders and decision makers Get the approval for the change from the stakeholders and decision makers Implement the change with the project team Measure and report the results
Group Exercise – NetworkExampleIt’s Friday evening, and you and your friend are consideringwhat to do during the weekend to unwind and relax. Theforecast for Saturday is for sunny and mild weather, so youdecide to go on a picnic at a local lake. To make sure you getthe most out of the trip, design a network diagram using thefollowing activities: Load the car Get money from the bank Make sandwiches Drive to the lake Decide which lake to go to Buy gasoline Boil eggs (for the egg sandwiches)
Group Exercise – NetworkExampleHere are the constraints for the project: You and your friend will start all activities at your house at 8 a.m. Saturday – you can’t do anything before that time You must perform all seven activities to complete your project. You can’t change who must be present during each activity The two lakes you’re considering are in opposite directions from your house, so you must decide where you’re going to have your picnic before you begin your drive
Group Exercise – NetworkExampleInstructions: You will be given pieces of paper to represent each task Write each task on a piece of paper You must line the tasks up based on their dependencies. Some tasks can be done at the same time or in parallel After you do that you will be able to determine the critical path of tasks that must be done and when
Suggested Reading• Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling by Harold Kerzner - 10th Ed. ISBN: 978-0470278703• PM Crash Course, Premier Edition: A Crash Course in Real-World Project Management by Rita Mulcahy ISBN: 978-1932735079• For those pursuing CAPM or PMP certification: The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) 4th Edition by The Project Management Institute ISBN: 978-1933890517