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# Build Your Own 3D Scanner: Conclusion

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Conclusion

http://mesh.brown.edu/byo3d/

SIGGRAPH 2009 Courses
Douglas Lanman and Gabriel Taubin

This course provides a beginner with the necessary mathematics, software, and practical details to leverage projector-camera systems in their own 3D scanning projects. An example-driven approach is used throughout; each new concept is illustrated using a practical scanner implemented with off-the-shelf parts. The course concludes by detailing how these new approaches are used in rapid prototyping, entertainment, cultural heritage, and web-based applications.

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### Build Your Own 3D Scanner: Conclusion

1. 1. <ul><li>Session II </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Projector Calibration / Structured Light Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Combining Point Clouds Recovered from Multiple Views </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Reconstruction from Point Clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary Mesh Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion / Q & A </li></ul>Course Schedule
2. 2. Summary of Optical Triangulation Assign Texture (BRDF, etc.) Align 3D Point Clouds Reconstruct 3D Point Cloud(s) Data Capture Extract Isosurface (Polyhedral Mesh)
3. 3. Summary of Optical Triangulation: Projector-Camera Calibration calibration board camera coordinate system projector coordinate system 0 500 1000 0 500 1000 1500 400 200 0 X c2 Y c2 O c2 Z c2 X p Y p X c Z p O p X c1 Z c1 Y c1 O c1 (mm) Z c (mm) Y c (mm)
4. 4. Summary of Optical Triangulation: Post-Processing (Point Clouds  Meshes) <ul><li>Register multiple point cloud scans </li></ul><ul><li>Initialize by selecting matching point pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Iteratively refine with ICP </li></ul><ul><li>Fit watertight implicit surface to point cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically fills holes </li></ul><ul><li>Isosurface polygon mesh from regular hexahedral grid </li></ul><ul><li>Triangle mesh from adaptive tetrahedral mesh </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry processing </li></ul><ul><li>Denoising / Simplification / Refinement </li></ul><ul><li>Remeshing / Reparameterization </li></ul>
5. 5. Spatio-Temporal Trade-offs for Active Imaging Number of Projected Patterns Temporal Resolution Spatial Resolution <ul><li>Structured lighting patterns can be encoded spatially and/or temporally </li></ul><ul><li>Purely temporal encodings  high-resolution capture of static scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Purely spatial encodings  low-resolution capture of dynamic scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid codes adjust trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed/synchronized systems allow high-resolution dynamic capture </li></ul>single-shot swept-plane/flying spot hybrid low (static) high (dynamic) low high
6. 6. Recent Work: Scanning Dynamic Scenes S.G. Narasimhan, S. J. Koppal, and S. Yamazaki. Temporal Dithering of Illumination for Fast Active Vision . European Conf. Comp. Vision, 2008
7. 7. *See the SIGGRAPH 2009 course: Acquisition of Optically Complex Objects and Phenomena by Heidrich and Ihrke. Recent Work: Scanning Transparent Objects M. B. Hullin, M. Fuchs, I. Ihrke, H.-P. Seidel, and H. P. A. Lensch. Fluorescent Immersion Range Scanning . ACM SIGGRAPH, 2008 <ul><li>Conventional laser striping observes contour on an opaque object </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent immersion laser striping observes endpoint of laser sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Captures cross-section in a single image with an index-matching fluid </li></ul>
8. 8. *See the SIGGRAPH 2009 course: Acquisition of Optically Complex Objects and Phenomena by Heidrich and Ihrke. Recent Work: Scanning Transparent Objects B. Trifonov, D. Bradley, and W. Heidrich. Tomographic Reconstruction of Transparent Objects . Eurographics Symposium on Rendering (2006)
9. 9. <ul><li>Limitations of Structured Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Only recovers mutually-visible surface (i.e., must be illuminated and imaged) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete model requires multiple scans or additional projectors/cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Often requires post-processing (e.g., ICP) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Views with Planar Mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Trade spatial for angular resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple views by including planar mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>What about illumination interference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use orthographic illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Components </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-view: digital camera + planar mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Orthographic: DLP projector + Fresnel lens </li></ul>Recent Work: Multiplexed Views and Eliminating Moving Parts D. Lanman, D. Crispell, and G. Taubin. Surround Structured Lighting: 3-D Scanning with Orthographic Illumination . Computer Vision and Image Understanding , 2009 A. Griesser, T. P. Koninckx, and L. Van Gool. Adaptive real-time 3D acquisition and contour tracking within a multiple structured light system . Computer Graphics and Applications , 2004 Surround Lighting by Precise Alignment [Van Gool '04]
10. 10. Applications: 3D Printing http://shapeways.com
11. 11. Applications: DIY 3D Printing MakerBot 'Cupcake' DIY 3D printer [~\$750] http://store.makerbot.com/
12. 12. Applications: DIY 3D Printing RepRap (Replicating Rapid-prototyper) Project [~\$650] http://reprap.org
13. 13. Applications: DIY 3D Printing Fab@Home Fabber Model 1 [~\$2,300] http://fabathome.org
14. 14. Applications: DIY 3D Printing CandyFab 4000: 3D Freeform Fabrication [~\$500] http://www.candyfab.org/
15. 15. Applications: Entertainment (Leaving the “Uncanny Valley”) *See the SIGGRAPH 2009 course: The Digital Emily Project: Photoreal Facial Modeling and Animation by Debevec et al. Light Stage 5 Data Acquisition Color Fringes for Coarse Geometry Gradient Illumination for Fine Details
16. 16. Applications: Entertainment (3D Cinematography) <ul><li>3D Scanners in Film Production </li></ul><ul><li>“ House of Cards” by Radiohead </li></ul><ul><li>Uses phase-shifting and time-of-flight </li></ul><ul><li>GeoVideo Real-Time Motion Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Velodyne HDL-64E LIDAR </li></ul>http://code.google.com/creative/radiohead/
17. 17. International Conference on Computational Photography Papers due November 2, 2009 http://cameraculture.media.mit.edu/iccp10
18. 18. Thank you for attending! Win a SIGGRAPH 2009 mug: http://ww.siggraph.org/courses_evaluation One winner (per course) notified by email tonight! http://mesh.brown.edu/byo3d