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More on the Fundamental Principle of Counting and introduction to Permutations.

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- 1. How many ways can they sit in a row? Proud Pride
- 2. In how many ways can 5 people be seated in a straight line?
- 3. Factorial Notation When we want to multiply all the natural numbers from a particular number down to 1, we can use factorial notation to indicate this operation. The symbol quot;!quot; is used to indicate factorial. This notation can save us the trouble of writing a long list of numbers. For example: 6! means 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 720 On the calculator ... 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 24 Press: [MATH] [<] (Prb) 10! = 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 [4] (!) = 3 628 800 1! = 1 By definition 0! = 1
- 4. In how many ways can six students be seated in 8 vacant seats?
- 5. Permutations (the quot;Pickquot; Formula) A permutation is an ordered arrangement of objects. On the calculator ... Press: [MATH] n is the number of objects available to [<] (Prb) be arranged r is the number of objects [2] (nPr) that are being arranged. Examples: In how many ways can 5 people In how many ways can six students be seated in a straight line? be seated in 8 vacant seats?
- 6. (a) How many “words” of 4 different letters each can be made from the letters A, E, I, O, R, S, T? (b) How many of these words begin with a vowel and end with a consonant? (c) In how many of these words do vowels and consonants alternate?
- 7. (a) How many numbers of 5 different digits each can be formed from the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6? (b) How many of these numbers are even?
- 8. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6? (c) How many of these numbers are divisable by 5?
- 9. HOMEWORK (a) How many different 4 digit numbers are there in which all the digits are different? (b) How many of these numbers are odd? (c) How many of these numbers are divisable by 5?
- 10. HOMEWORK (a) How many 3-digit numbers can be formed if no digit is used more than twice in the same number? (b) How many of these numbers are odd? (c) How many of these numbers are divisable by 5?
- 11. HOMEWORK In how many ways can 8 books be arranged on a shelf, if 3 particular books must be together?
- 12. HOMEWORK (a) In how many ways can 4 English books and 3 French books be arranged in a row on a shelf? (b) In how many of these ways will the French books be together?

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