Communicating Quality Standards


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  • Communicating Quality Standards

    1. 1. Communicating Quality Standards Denise Konrad Mechanical Engineer & Consumer February 2, 2009
    2. 2. Impact of Product Quality <ul><li>Excellent Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marmoleum Click </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McDonald’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing Service Department to handle complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead Paint, Pet Food, lawyers, insurance claims </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Communicating Quality Standards <ul><li>Methods of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Plan Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Document Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Audits </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Other Factors to Consider </li></ul>
    4. 4. Methods of Communications
    5. 5. Types of Communication <ul><li>Skype or internet meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger groups can be gathered for discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to plan for time differences and holidays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed at specific people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailbox size limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Group Meetings <ul><li>Skype or internet meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a designated host and co-host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send out agenda before each meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send out notes detailing results of discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List all participants and send copy to each </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Meeting Agenda <ul><li>Meeting Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send to all participants at least a day before meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List all items that are to be discussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include who is requesting information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include who is responsible to supply information </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Meeting Results <ul><li>Meeting Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send to all participants quickly after meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail what was discussed and responses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of action items, listing who is responsible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule for next meeting </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. E-mail Communications <ul><li>Be courteous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to ask how they are. Be friendly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say ‘Thank you’ for the information provided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then request further information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We want to look for someone to blame, this will hamper communications. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. E-mail Suggestions <ul><li>E-mail details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use patterned emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use bullet points or numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific in each section. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not release controlled documents through email. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy only those people involved. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Quality Plan Structure
    12. 12. Quality Plan Overview <ul><li>Before Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing/specifications release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Processes written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposition of rejected product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Identification (production date/supplier) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After shipments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCM/CAR </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Basics <ul><li>Who are the contact people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone speaks english well or is comfortable speaking it, most are good at emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When there are problems who gets contacted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who controls document releases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure for document release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where/how: ftp website,portal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What format used to transfer information </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Product Quality Requirements <ul><li>What drives the product quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure they have copies of any specifications that they will be expected to comply with </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Quality Procedures <ul><li>Releasing Controlled Documents (ECR/ECN) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other controlled documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the procedure when changes are needed? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a site specific document needed – more detailed for China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who can initiate changes, why </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who must approve before released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How are documents released and stored </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Quality Procedures (continued) <ul><li>PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What level is required. How is this determined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many samples are required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to send new samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who to send them to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who reviews and approves samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to provide the address to send samples to </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Quality Procedures (continued) <ul><li>Deviations - temporary fix to meet schedule </li></ul><ul><li>NCM - nonconforming product/ processes </li></ul><ul><li>CAR - corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the people that should be contacted </li></ul><ul><li>What programs are used to report. </li></ul><ul><li>Where is information stored. </li></ul><ul><li>How – the written documentation </li></ul>
    18. 18. Quality Plan Highlights <ul><li>Who controls procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Who has access to documents </li></ul><ul><li>What procedures are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the information stored </li></ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Training manuals and training of personnel </li></ul>
    19. 19. Documentation = Knowledge
    20. 20. Basic Concerns <ul><li>What programs do they use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Drawings: Solidworks, Catia, Unigraphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What revision of the program are they running? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is their level of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What format will be used for exchange of information (dxf, dwg, pdf, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest revision, how to know what it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage and accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive requirements and location </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Product Documentation <ul><li>Product Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of Product – ‘What are they being asked to make?’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing Details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerances: Are they acceptable? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of dimensions: inches/mm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Dimensions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestion: NO CHANGES WITHOUT APPROVAL FROM? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material Specifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revision level management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Details, Details, Details - leave nothing open to interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Manufacturing Documentation <ul><li>Manufacturing Instructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify details – no detail too insignificant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which changes require ECR/ECN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling of rejected product </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Quality Documentation <ul><li>First Article Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of PPAP (level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What testing is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What equipment is needed for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will an outside company be used for any testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who chooses outside test facility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the time required to complete PPAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who approves PPAP </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. More Quality Documentation <ul><li>Outside Supplier Approval Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Certifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of Certifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Inspection Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gage control requirements </li></ul>
    25. 25. Problem Documentation <ul><li>NCM </li></ul><ul><li>CAR </li></ul><ul><li>Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier Scorecards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier marking on product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carton labels – production date information </li></ul>
    26. 26. Quality Audits
    27. 27. Supplier Audits <ul><li>Incoming material </li></ul><ul><li>Material Certifications </li></ul><ul><li>Verification Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier Score cards </li></ul>
    28. 28. Production Audits <ul><li>Quality Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What data is collected, SPC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who reviews data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incoming inspections – skip lot procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Additional testing to monitor production quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside testing labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In house testing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent issues with lead paint in toys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company’s heat treatment of axels changed without permission </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Problem Resolution
    30. 30. When things go bad <ul><li>When a problem occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t jump to blame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to identify problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to identify extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment of problem materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Pointing the finger <ul><li>Example: China supplier does not ship because of problem with assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Thank them for finding the problem and stopping shipment </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them for details of what happened </li></ul><ul><li>Getting angry will hamper communications </li></ul>
    32. 32. Identify the Initial Problem <ul><li>What product is affected </li></ul><ul><li>What are the details of what is wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get as many details as possible </li></ul>
    33. 33. Problem Extent <ul><li>Are there any related product that may have the same problem </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a new problem or previously unidentified </li></ul><ul><li>Are any products in the field impacted </li></ul><ul><li>What shipment schedules are affected </li></ul>
    34. 34. Where is it? <ul><li>Where is all of the affected product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Containment <ul><li>Can all product be identified by location and label information </li></ul><ul><li>What is the procedure for locking up non-conforming materials so that they cannot be shipped </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation that material is contained </li></ul><ul><li>Recall from field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who heads the initiative </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. The Fix – Short Term <ul><li>Can the product be reworked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – What is the procedure to fix (Deviation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – What should be done with bad product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Deviations – short term solutions so that product can be shipped </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on customer requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who contacts customer </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. The Fix – Long Term <ul><li>NCM – identifies what happened, who found it and what was done </li></ul><ul><li>CAR – What will be done to prevent this problem in the future </li></ul><ul><li>This is the history of the product and is important for identifying areas for future improvements </li></ul>
    38. 38. Future <ul><li>Problems = </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford : Even a mistake may turn out to be the one thing necessary to a worthwhile achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>George Santayana : Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it </li></ul>
    39. 39. Questions