Briefing by: Koizumi Daisaku, Primante Angelo, Małajny AgnieszkaUS Clusters:Silicon Valley, BostonLos Angeles and San Diego January 2012
Table of contents 1 What is a Cluster 2 Cluster in details 3 Selected US Clusters 4 Silicon Valley 5 Boston Clusters 6 San Diego / Los Angeles Clusters
What is a cluster ? Clusters are geographic concentrations of interrelated organizations in a particular field or industry. This means that organizations such as companies, institutions, governmental bodies, media and other associations are the main players within a cluster. Organizations Universities for collaboration Public Bodies Media Industry Cluster Finance
Clusters in details Facilitate Increases PRODUCTIVITY Stimulates and enable commercialization and / EFFICIENCY INNOVATIONS new business formations Efficient access to Opportunities for new Grater likelihood of specialized imputs, companies and new perceiving innovation services, employees, businesses are more opportunities ; e.g. institutions, training apparent unmet needs, programs and other Spinoffs and startups combination of services „public goods” (local are are encourage by or technologies, outsourcing) the presence of other sophisticated customers Ease of coordination companies, commercial Presence of multiple and transactions across relationships and suppliers and firms Rapid diffusion of concentrated demanad institutions to assist in better practices Commercializing new knowledge creation Ongoing, visible products and starting Ease of performance comparison new companies is easier experimentation given and strong incentives to becuase of avaible skills, locally available improve vs local rivals suppliers etc. resources Proximity of rivals Patents [ following encourages strategic slide ] differenciation
United States Patents per employee 2009 36 San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA Patents per 10,000 US Average 17 Employees 12 7 7 2009
Cluster categories Source: Institute for Strategy and Competitivness , Harvard Business School, 2011
Silicon Valley Key Facts: Area: 1.845 sq miles Population: 3 millions (2010) Employment: 1.3 millions (2010) Avarage annual earning: 79.978$ Avarage age of residents: 35 Key fields: - microelectronics - information technolgies (IT) - biotechnologies - instrumentation In Silicon Valley 20% of the worlds 100 biggest electronics and software companies have taken root.
Silicon Valley : Top CompaniesSource: San Jose Mercury News, 2011 Silicon Valley 150 listings.
Silicon Valley: Wages and employmentAverage Wages ( area San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland )average wages in 2009 were $59,261 -vs- $42,403 for the US, or 39.76% above thenational average.Average Wage GrowthAverage wage growth per year from 1998-2009 was 3.7% -vs- 3.01% for the US (ranked13 out of 179).Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 08, 2009.
San Diego Cluster Key Facts: Employment: 1,119,643, Avarage wage: $44,894 Patents: 16.68 /10,000e Key fields Specialized Clusters: Leather and sporting goods Power Generation Education and Knowledge
San Diego cluster Rank Organization Total Patents 2005 through 2009 1 QUALCOMM, INC. 1,009 2 HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P. 370 3 CALLAWAY GOLF COMPANY 320 4 SONY CORPORATION 251 5 BROADCOM CORPORATION 202 6 KYOCERA WIRELESS CORP. 182 7 ACUSHNET COMPANY 158 8 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE REGENTS OF 152 9 TAYLOR MADE GOLF COMPANY, INC. 118 10 ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 112
San Diego – CLEANTECHMISSIONstimulate innovation and advance the adoption ofclean technologiesenvironmental and social benefit of the greaterSan Diego region SAN DIEGO CLEAN TECH COMPANIES 822 Launched in March 2010, Governor Schwarzeneggers iHub Initiative provides a platform for research clusters, startup companies, government entities, business groups and venture capitalists by leveraging assets such as research parks, technology incubators, universities, and federal laboratories to foster innovation and job creation statewide.
Los Angeles cluster Key Facts: Employment: 5,039,574 Avarage wage: $47,812 Patents: 7.65 /10,000e Key fields Specialized Clusters: Apparel Building fixtures Equipment and services Entertainment Source Porter2009
Los Angeles cluster Rank Organization Total Patents 2005 through 2009 1 BROADCOM CORPORATION 1,391 2 BOEING COMPANY 513 3 CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 440 4 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE REGENTS OF 349 5 NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION 308 6 INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER CORPORATION 230 7 ALLERGAN, INC. 228 8 PACESETTER, INC. 211 9 RAYTHEON COMPANY 203 10 HONDA KAISHA (HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.) 196 Source Porter 2009