The American Revolution


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The American Revolution

  1. 1. The American Revolution Chapter 6, pg. 150 - 183
  2. 2. Section 1: The Revolution Begins <ul><li>Pg. 152 - 156 </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how colonists tried to find a peaceful solution with England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate how the fighting at Lexington and Concord affected the colonies’ conflict with England </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. First Continental Congress <ul><li>Meeting of American leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Dickinson - we should make peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrick Henry - there’s no way to avoid a fight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue boycott of English goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell militia to get ready to fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send list of grievances to King </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The “shot heard round the world” <ul><li>American “minutemen” gather weapons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English General Thomas Gage sends out troops to capture weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Revere warns Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English met at Lexington by 75 Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shot rings out, both sides open fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English move on to Concord </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. American victory at Concord <ul><li>English move on to Concord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans pour into Concord from all directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English retreat, Americans pursue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 English soldiers killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>News of victory gets more American support for war </li></ul>
  6. 6. Second Continental Congress <ul><li>American leaders have to respond to fighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t break away from England yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint Washington commander of army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send out Olive Branch Petition - last chance for peace </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Americans gather strength <ul><li>Americans have manpower, but few good weapons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold seize Fort Ticonderoga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Knox transports cannons down to Boston </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Meanwhile, in Boston <ul><li>A siege, almost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans have Boston surrounded, but no cannons yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English attack American position at Bunker Hill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 English dead, 400 Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Washington and Knox arrive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English General Howe evacuates Boston </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The story so far … <ul><li>Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have plenty of troops, but little experience or good weaponry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excited after early victories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have more troops on the way from England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very experienced, very good weaponry and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassed and angry after early defeats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tough times ahead for Americans </li></ul>
  10. 10. Section 2: Declaring Independence <ul><li>Pg. 158 - 161 </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the influence of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense on the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the main ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain Americans’ reaction to the Delclaration of Independence </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense <ul><li>Pamphlet that argued for American independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the best-selling books in American history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convinced many Americans to support independence </li></ul><ul><li>Paine’s arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should an island rule a continent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would we get dragged into European wars? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If England is our “mother country,” why would she want to punish her “child”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How efficient is it for them to rule us? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are we an “English” nation? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Second Continental Congress votes for independence from England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson drafts the declaration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas in declaration – most from the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have inalienable rights (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King George had violated those rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have the right to break away from England </li></ul></ul>Declaration of Independence approved on July 4, 1776
  13. 13. The colonists choose sides <ul><li>Americans choose sides </li></ul><ul><li>Patriots support independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include Patrick Henry, Ben Franklin, and Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidated or beat Loyalists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loyalists support the king </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include Sam Curwen, William Franklin, and Tom Fairfax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fled to Canada or the Caribbean </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. An imperfect declaration? <ul><li>Some groups felt ignored by the declaration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ All men are created equal.” What about women? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can we value liberty and value slavery at the same time? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dark Hours for the Revolution <ul><li>Pg. 166 – 269 </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also that </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Comparing strengths and weaknesses <ul><li>American forces </li></ul><ul><li>Had very little money and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Had no navy at all </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers were mostly poorly-trained and equipped militia </li></ul><ul><li>Had a cause to believe in </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the civilians in the colonies supported the Patriots </li></ul><ul><li>English forces </li></ul><ul><li>More money and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Best army and navy in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers were all well-trained professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Included Hessian mercenaries (guns-for-hire) </li></ul>
  17. 17. A call to arms <ul><li>Both sides gathered forces, but had some problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans - problems with pay, problems with enlistments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English – problems with supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves who joined the English would get their freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington’s about-face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First banned blacks, then allowed them later </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other sources of help <ul><li>Both sides got help from unexpected places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English – alliance with Joseph Brant got the Iroquois tribes on their side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many potential American soldiers stayed home to protect their homes form Indians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans – women contributed by providing supplies and inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Molly Pitcher” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The low point of the war for the Patriots <ul><li>Thomas Paine’s The Crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he who stands by it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. British victories <ul><li>We show our inexperience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec in 1775 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our attempt to invade Canada collapses entirely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Island in 1776 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington’s first major battle is a disaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English easily defeat us – a mistake keeps us from losing the war in that battle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Congress looks to replace Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement is captured by English outside a bar </li></ul></ul></ul>