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Chapter 3 conceptual understanding alternative conceptions


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Chapter 3 conceptual understanding alternative conceptions

  1. 1. Chapter 3. Learning Science With understanding<br />SCED 570, Fall 2009<br />
  2. 2. constructivism<br /><ul><li>Constructivist approach
  3. 3. Learning is a construction based on the learner’s prior knowledge
  4. 4. New knowledge is always based on the prior or existing knowledge that learners bring to learning situation
  5. 5. Construct knowledge with understanding in science
  6. 6. Knowledge: integrated, growing in completeness, transferred to a wide range of contexts and situations
  7. 7. Understanding develops gradually</li></li></ul><li>Alternative conceptions (p. 70-) <br /><ul><li>Personal theories of learners does not match what is known to be scientifically correct </li></ul> (i.e. causes of the seasons)<br /><ul><li>Conceptual change comes when personal theories are challenged
  8. 8. Provide learners with opportunities to challenge inconsistencies between personal thinking and accepted science explanations
  9. 9. Requires a reorganization of thinking and links</li></li></ul><li>Alternative conceptions (p. 72-75) <br /><ul><li>Conceptual change 4 steps (Anderson, 1987):
  10. 10. Identify alternative conceptions
  11. 11. Promote dissatisfaction with alternative conceptions (discrepant events)
  12. 12. Share science conceptions
  13. 13. Provide for transfer of new conceptions
  14. 14. Inquiry approach to science is compatible with building conceptual change</li></li></ul><li>Enhancing the understanding of science<br />(p. 64-69)<br />1. Provide for access to prior knowledge<br /><ul><li>Help students recall what they already know
  15. 15. abstract representation of knowledge (more concepts & principles rather than facts) promotes greater access and transfer</li></ul>2. Provide for transfer of new knowledge<br /><ul><li>Use of previous learned knowledge in new situations
  16. 16. Assessment: framework </li></ul>3. Enhance knowledge organization<br /><ul><li>Useful knowledge is organized into connected networks called knowledge structures
  17. 17. Graphic organizers – outlines, Venn diagrams, concept maps</li></li></ul><li>Concept map<br /><ul><li>A visual representation of a major concept and its relationship to subsidiary concepts (Joseph Novak, 1995)
  18. 18. Structure: concepts, propositions, words linking, hierarchical structure, cross-links, examples </li></li></ul><li>FORMS<br />OF<br />WATER<br />GAS<br />SOLID<br />LIQUID<br />WATER<br />VAPOR<br />FROST<br />STEAM<br />SNOW<br />ICE<br />RAIN<br />CLOUD<br />DEW<br />FOG<br />MIST<br />Concept map<br />
  19. 19. Venn diagram<br />
  20. 20. Enhancing the understanding of science (cont.)<br />4. Provide Scaffolding Support<br /><ul><li>Scaffolding – external support provided by teachers that helps students complete tasks.
  21. 21. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) – Vygotsky’s idea that what can be learned cooperatively can then be done individually.
  22. 22. Teacher provides suggestions, questions, prompts, hints
  23. 23. Students clarify, elaborate, provide evidence
  24. 24. What other factors should teachers consider in scaffolding instruction?</li></li></ul><li>Enhancing the understanding of science (cont.)<br />5. Build Learning Communities <br /><ul><li>Cooperative learning results in higher learning than individual
  25. 25. Teachers:
  26. 26. establish the learning environment
  27. 27. Make learner ideas more meaningful through comment, elaboration, questioning
  28. 28. Promote dialogue amongst learners</li>