Leadership & Management, Berkshire College, UK


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  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour
  • Leadership & Management, Berkshire College, UK

    1. 1. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris “ Management and Leadership" Prof. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    2. 2. <ul><li>Elevator Speech </li></ul><ul><li>You have </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to prepare and </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to conduct a presentation : </li></ul><ul><li>Present your self : </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training received </li></ul><ul><li>Working experience </li></ul><ul><li>Training targets </li></ul><ul><li>What is Management? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Leadership </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity learning contract
    3. 3. <ul><li>Learning outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of this training the participants will be able to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>What Management is, </li></ul><ul><li>Realize what type of manager you are, </li></ul><ul><li>What coaching is, how an when to use it, </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect of communication, </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management and its dimensions, </li></ul><ul><li>Role of team and ways to built it, </li></ul><ul><li>Time management and how to delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Learn: Strategies, Techniques and Tools </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Training targets
    4. 4. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>tell me – I will forget </li></ul><ul><li>show me – I may remember </li></ul><ul><li>let me get involved – I will understand </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Concept of Leadership behaviours
    6. 6. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris What makes an effective manager?
    7. 7. <ul><li>How to manage different people in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>achieve the organisational goals? </li></ul><ul><li>utilize their outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge needed to: </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret and </li></ul><ul><li>Prognoses </li></ul><ul><li>The employee behavior at work </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager dilemma Manager dilemma
    8. 8. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: “ Lumberjack”
    9. 9. Result: the systems function well in relation to effective management Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Systems operations Effective management Management result a correlation of : Result
    10. 10. <ul><li>What are the results of a behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling & reactions to the below behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles and looks happy  </li></ul><ul><li>Gives without asking a return </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks   </li></ul><ul><li>Helps   </li></ul><ul><li>Listens without judging </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Gives credit </li></ul><ul><li>Receives bad behaviours with tolerance and understanding   </li></ul><ul><li>Result on: long-term relationships , trust , fame , cooperation . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity “ Positive attitude” Long term results
    11. 11. <ul><li>The employees accept the power when they: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the orders </li></ul><ul><li>Feel orders are compatible with the organisational goals </li></ul><ul><li>The orders do not conflict their personal beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Are able to execute the task in the way it was assigned to them </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Chester Barnard
    12. 12. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Human factor Human factor Most problems does not concern practical issues but issues related to HUMANS .
    13. 13. <ul><li>The result through people and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sets goals and agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies roles </li></ul><ul><li>Plans tasks for execution </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Sets timetable </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a method of result evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Controls and Monitors if task is correctly done </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate task </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Credit to employees </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager
    14. 14. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Priority: Relationship High Low 9 Priority: Task 1 9 (1.9) (9.9) (1.1) (9.1) Team Army Club High Manager stance
    15. 15. <ul><li>One way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager says to the team: </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Has to be done for the particular task </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Task
    16. 16. <ul><li>Two way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Socio – Emotional support </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust, respect, dialogue, listening, encouragement </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Relationship Manager Member
    17. 17. <ul><li>Says BRAVO </li></ul><ul><li>Asks for ideas and propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages and ensures the member that he can do the job </li></ul><ul><li>Listens to the members’ problems and helps them to find a solution </li></ul><ul><li>If a member is one well he lets everyone know </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Relationship The manager:
    18. 18. <ul><li>As the member’s readiness increases, </li></ul><ul><li>the manager’s task behavior is decreasing and the relationship behavior increases . </li></ul><ul><li>Management Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technical: knowledge and proficiency in work (competencies in field, analytical ability, ability to use appropriate tools and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Human: knowledge and ability to work with people. Assist to achieve a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual: ability to work with ideas. To be comfortable at seeing the bigger picture and translate this understanding into words everyone understands. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective manager
    19. 19. <ul><li>Giving many responsibilities, simultaneously in short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the relationship behavior, without a simultaneous desired result. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Possible problems
    20. 20. The race
    21. 23. ΤΕΡΜΑ
    22. 30. ΤΕΡΜΑ
    23. 33. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    24. 34. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Exploring your managerial style
    25. 35. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Middle manager Successful carrier Effective manager 32% 28% 44% 20% 11% 26% 19% 48% 11% 13% 19% 29% Effective manager Traditional : Make decisions, plans, controls Communication administrator : Manages information Personnel : Encourages, conflic man., hires, trains Public Relations: Builds social relations , external factors
    26. 36. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Humane Vision - strategies Technical Required skills General manager Managers Supervisors
    27. 37. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Understand of myself </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of capable employees </li></ul><ul><li>Effective management </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management </li></ul><ul><li>Team and people development </li></ul> Human skills
    28. 38. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video:
    29. 39. <ul><li>Provides directives and monitors closely </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpless, unwilling, unskilled </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 1 : high task low relationship
    30. 40. <ul><li>The manager explains the decision and provides the chance for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue and explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak, helpless , willing , ενθουσιώδης </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 2 high task high relationship
    31. 41. <ul><li>The manager shares ideas and assists in the decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the supervisor and subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate encouraged by supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><li>capable, sure, insecure </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 3 low task high relationship
    32. 42. <ul><li>The manager gives away the decision and implementation responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives room </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capable , willing , secure </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Στυλ4 low task low relationship
    33. 43. <ul><li>Place the animals below in line . </li></ul><ul><li>Lion, dog, parrot, elephant . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity ”Self - perception through others”     lion dog parrot elephant I want others to see me as:             Other see me as: In the future I want others to see me as: I really want to be:
    34. 44. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity ”Self - perception through others”   lion dog parrot elephant authority fearless independent decision pro-acts leader subjective focussed       protect reliable trusting capable loving   friend faithful Support Active Joyful free spirit social open Popular attractive passion spontaneous           passive tolerant passive cooperate respect Strong controlled Calm Sacred Wise
    35. 45. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Has time to listen to others </li></ul><ul><li>Respects others and sees their human side, not only results </li></ul><ul><li>Has an interest on others on a personal basis and helps other solve the problems </li></ul><ul><li>Good role model </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens and encourages others to believe in themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Does not pretend to be the ‘boss’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Shares info with others . </li></ul><ul><li>Give credit for good results. </li></ul><ul><li>Give info when results are not expected . </li></ul> Directives for managers
    36. 46. <ul><li>Once upon a time there was a frog race . </li></ul><ul><li>The aim was to get on the top of a tower . </li></ul><ul><li>A lot gathered to support them . </li></ul><ul><li>That race started… . In reality, everyone thought that it was an inevitable task. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone was shouting: “what a waste, they will never make it to the top” </li></ul><ul><li>The frogs begun having doubts of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>One after the other admitted that they could not make it. All but one! At the end and after a tremendous effort he made it. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the rest asked him how did he made it, when they realized the winner frog was deaf !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: always pretend to be deaf when other tells you that you will not make it. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris The frog
    37. 47. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Lunch
    38. 48. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    39. 49. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Managing Conflicts
    40. 50. <ul><li>A situation at which two or more sides consider (correctly or not) that their goals are opposite and each side is trying to prevent the other from accomplishing their goals . </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of threat, or actual conflict, is necessary for the initiation of conflict prevention or management measures, and hence it is essential to address the concept of conflict before exploring how to prevent and manage such occurrences. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict
    41. 51. <ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul><ul><li>To be negative </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Colliding interests </li></ul><ul><li>Different beliefs, values, expectations, priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Different personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce resources </li></ul>Conflict reasons Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    42. 52. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: conflict
    43. 53. <ul><li>A result of : </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes , </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement, </li></ul><ul><li>Is originated from trouble makers . </li></ul><ul><li>Damages the organization </li></ul><ul><li>It is inevitable but sometimes, useful , when it is required to be effective and creative . </li></ul>Conflict Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    44. 54. <ul><ul><li>Disorients the attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non productive situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict results Disadvantages :
    45. 55. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Encourages the change Activates the innovation Give to a problem a new perspective Reveals hidden issues Promotes accumulated emotions expression Increase the commitment and the interest A chance for learning Conflict results Advantages :
    46. 56. <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to listen </li></ul><ul><li>No going back from the positions </li></ul><ul><li>Blame the others </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict pre-messages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    47. 57. <ul><li>Human reactions under pressure, stress, threat . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Resist </li></ul><ul><li>increase voice volume </li></ul><ul><li>Show with the pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Blame others </li></ul><ul><li>Look intensively </li></ul><ul><li>Hit the table with the hand </li></ul><ul><li>Run </li></ul><ul><li>Look elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Go back </li></ul><ul><li>Speak calmly </li></ul><ul><li>Change subject </li></ul><ul><li>Agree fast </li></ul>resist or run
    48. 58. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict management Conflict resolution The limitation, easing and control of a conflict without necessarily solving it. Change from destructive to constructive, in the mode of interaction. Solve of incompatibilities and mutual acceptance of each party’s existence, Aim: resolving or terminating conflicts or increase cooperation and deepen their relationship.
    49. 59. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: conflict
    50. 60. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Way communication works
    51. 61. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    52. 62. <ul><li>Reflect on job you’ve been involved in. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the job. </li></ul><ul><li>What were the most successful features? </li></ul><ul><li>What went wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    53. 63. Facts <ul><li>Statistics show that 74% of projects are unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the factors that contribute to the corporate failure is poor or insufficient communication. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    54. 64. Communication process components <ul><li>message, </li></ul><ul><li>source, </li></ul><ul><li>encoding, </li></ul><ul><li>channel, </li></ul><ul><li>decoding, </li></ul><ul><li>receiver, </li></ul><ul><li>feedback, </li></ul><ul><li>noise, </li></ul><ul><li>context and </li></ul><ul><li>shared meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction: Primary point of effective communication </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    55. 65. Communication types <ul><li>Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral: face-to-face or group meetings, telephone. voice, body language, attitude and nuances. </li></ul><ul><li>Written: Memos, Letters, Minutes, Reports, Documentation, Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal: dress code, voice tone, stance. </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdote: NASA neg., hands under table. </li></ul><ul><li>Body language can improve the level of understanding. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    56. 66. Communication Issues <ul><li>Downwards Communication (Man. to Staff) </li></ul><ul><li>Directives through speeches and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Company internal newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Regular reports on performance </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing details and Warns employees </li></ul><ul><li>Upwards Communication (Staff to Man.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reports , Problems and difficulties, </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion boxes, open door policy, face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal communication (Among depts.) </li></ul><ul><li>co­ordination and problem-solving. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    57. 67. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    58. 68. <ul><li>Process in which info is exchanged and understood with the intention of influencing behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Sender: person wishing to convey a message (idea or info), to others, by encoding the idea in symbols (words). </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver: person to whom the message is sent by decoding the symbols. During encoding and decoding errors arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel: message is conveyed through (note, memo, letter, report, telephone call or face-to-face meeting). </li></ul><ul><li>Noise: the distortion when translating symbols to meaning (experience, attitudes and knowledge affecting perception). </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: two-way comm., the receiver to the sender in the form of a return message or reaction </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Communication process
    59. 69. <ul><li>Impersonal, static: bulletins & general reports (does not permit feedback) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal, static (richer): Memos, letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive channels: phone and e-mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical presence (richest): face-to-face. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing the richness: </li></ul><ul><li>ability to handle multiple signals simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>degree allows rapid two-way comm. </li></ul><ul><li>ability to permit comm. on personal basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a channel: </li></ul><ul><li>Message unusual and non-routine: rich channel, as misunderstandings of new events can so easily arise (under pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Routine messages: statistics or minutes of meetings, can be conveyed through a less rich channel. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Channel Richness: amount of info that can be transmitted
    60. 70. <ul><li>When a person communicates through actions and behaviour, messages of a nonverbal nature are transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal: high proportion of messages sent and received. </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding in a face-to-face discussion is achieved through facial expressions, tone of voice, posture and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Research study: </li></ul><ul><li>major factors in </li></ul><ul><li>face-to-face: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal impact : 7 % </li></ul><ul><li>Non- vocal impact: 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Facial impact: 55 % </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Communication Non-verbal
    61. 71. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: “ Interview”
    62. 72. <ul><li>Listening: managers must develop a skill for listening to stakeholders and their employees. </li></ul><ul><li>This skill enables one to receive and interpret, or decode, messages in terms of the facts and the feelings they convey. </li></ul><ul><li>It is then possible to provide effective feedback. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Communication
    63. 73. <ul><li>To what extent do you agree with this view? </li></ul><ul><li>“ To convince others, first convince yourself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Link your response to a typical project you are familiar with, paying special attention to the issue of successful interaction. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    64. 74. <ul><li>Humor: A joke relaxes a tense atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: members can readily relate. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors: good dully speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Language: individuals feel as part of the interaction, i.e. ‘Let us’ not ‘Let me’; ‘We are going to’ not ‘I am going to’; etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatise issues or narrate short stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: showing attention and cooperation i.e,. “you are listening, judging by your contribution”. </li></ul><ul><li>Make members achieving: “At this speed, we are getting there”, or “The good ideas have taken us far”, </li></ul><ul><li>Bad message: “This project is making our hair turn grey”, or “We always tremble when we think about this monstrous project”, or “Colleagues, I think there is burnout on account of this project” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask referential questions while you are making the presentation. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Communication techniques
    65. 75. <ul><li>How does citation of examples during presentation bring your message to life? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does good humour improve interactivity when the project manager is putting across ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest any two referential or open-ended questions that you can use to bring your message to life. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think such questions achieve the goal of enlivening your message? </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    66. 76. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Importance of attitude
    67. 77. <ul><li>Comment on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What it is said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their personalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You have 1 minute per picture . </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: body language, gestures,… </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity “ photos”
    68. 78. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
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    80. 90. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Lunch
    81. 91. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Building High Performance Teams
    82. 92. <ul><li>Group: collection of people who come together because they share something in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Team: group of people who share a common name, mission, history, set of goals or objectives and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Teambuilding: process needed to create, maintain, and enrich the development of a group of people into a cohesive unit. </li></ul>Group ,Team, Teambuilding Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    83. 93. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: “ Mule”
    84. 94. <ul><li>Read statement. When agree + or disagree -. There are no right or wrong answers. Arrive at a consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork strangle creativity and individuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Members should attend meetings to set team goals and discuss team problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal goals can be accomplished through teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to ignore the feelings of others in order to reach a team decision. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, conflict should be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>A silent member is not interested in working as a team. </li></ul><ul><li>The person in the group with the highest status in the organization should always take the leadership role. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, it is important and necessary to allow time for discussion and agreement on operating procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Every member is contributing toward the group task. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, &quot;majority rule&quot; applies. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork involves working toward a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>A good team member provides emotional support to all other members. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team needs a leader/coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork accomplishes a task more effectively and efficiently than individual efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team member should contribute equally toward accomplishing the task. </li></ul><ul><li>If a team fails to accomplish a task, it is the fault of the leader/coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>A primary concern of all team members should be to establish an atmosphere where all feel free to express their opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Final power in teamwork always rests with the leader/ coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>There are often occasions when an individual who is part of the team should do what he/she thinks is right, regardless of what the team has decided to do. </li></ul><ul><li>All members must be committed to the team approach to accomplish the task. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity Teambuilding
    85. 95. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video: “ Comedy Team Building”
    86. 96. <ul><li>Approaches to programming </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative support </li></ul><ul><li>New staff orientation, number within a team, turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding , commitment to a teamwork philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Personalities and attitudes of agents </li></ul><ul><li>Climate of openness and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural guidelines for staff functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of familiarity with alternative approaches for effectively working and programming together </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of roles /responsibilities /functions among team members </li></ul><ul><li>Time available as a resource </li></ul>Variables Influencing Teamwork Efforts Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    87. 97. <ul><li>Staff meetings (agenda and time to discuss) </li></ul><ul><li>Job descriptions with annual review </li></ul><ul><li>Know others' job descriptions and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Common criteria for personnel evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and willingness to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, Loyalty, Respect for privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness and Respect for others in spite of differences </li></ul><ul><li>Respect regardless of sex, age, race </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing talents of the others </li></ul><ul><li>Giving credit, Recognizing a job well done </li></ul><ul><li>Pride in work of total staff </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and support others' programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed upon priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee-making shared by all, Shared coffee breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation of pertinent information </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to talk over problems </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate facilities and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation, Constructive criticism </li></ul>Factors That Promote Working Relationships Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    88. 98. <ul><li>Members are committed to the value of working together. </li></ul><ul><li>Team size: 2-5 ideal, 5-10 workable, 10-15 difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Members know org . objectives, roles & responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Members establish and clarify guidelines and procedures for a working relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Members define and agree meaningful and measurable objectives that meet both group and personal needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone assumes leadership to coordinate effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Members do well in many roles (initiating, informing, summarizing, mediating, encouraging) and know when. </li></ul><ul><li>Members know others‘ resources, skills and expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>The group allows time for teamwork effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Work orientation first, but allows social interaction, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Members listen attentively, encourage participation and sharing of ideas and expression of views. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence in others' abilities, support one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Members use conflict productively. </li></ul>Attributes of Ideal Teamwork Relationships Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    89. 99. <ul><li>Team has a climate of trust and respect? </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between task and member needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Form alliances (rumors) affect productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Group focus on mission not socializing? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you assume a variety of roles?: Initiating activity, seeking info., seeking opinion, giving info., giving opinion, elaborating, coordinating, summarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Building Roles: Encouraging, standard setting, following and expressing group feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Task and Team Building Roles: Evaluating, diagnosing, testing for consensus, mediating, and relieving tension </li></ul>Maintaining the Team Effort Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    90. 100. <ul><li>Forming: orientation period. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unsure about what it is supposed to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not know each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storming: members find place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel comfortable giving opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start of intragroup conflicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norming: use experiences to solve problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures: goals, conflicts, decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performing: achieve harmony, define tasks, work out relationships, produce results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work together, manage conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissolving or reorientating </li></ul>Tuckman's model Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    91. 101. <ul><li>Stage 1: Getting acquainted. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief: everyone should “get along” and be in agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve unstable balance, people pretend </li></ul><ul><li>No-one is happy does not perform well. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>polite surface dialogue, info-sharing, </li></ul><ul><li>develop stereotypes to categorize others, </li></ul><ul><li>emotions and feelings are in tight control, </li></ul><ul><li>disagreement is avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>unspoken agreement not to disagree </li></ul><ul><li>there is a shared uncertainty about the specific task to be undertaken by the team. </li></ul>Team Development Stage 1 Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    92. 102. <ul><li>Stage 2: Destination </li></ul><ul><li>Individual disagreements will arise </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend everything is OK </li></ul><ul><li>Try to convert others to their point of view </li></ul><ul><li>“ Camps” can evolve in this stage </li></ul><ul><li>Teams do not perform well </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Question of goals, reasons for effort, </li></ul><ul><li>Members express divergent opinions, </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening develops, no understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain timetable develops </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimates member contribution </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    93. 103. <ul><li>Stage 3: costs/benefits of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Will effort have value for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Team help me achieve individual goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Individual contribution big & benefit small </li></ul><ul><li>I do work and team receive recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Nonproductive members get rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Others make comparable contributions? </li></ul><ul><li>All share the workload? </li></ul><ul><li>Team benefit from such an effort? </li></ul><ul><li>Members with similar needs and viewpoints form private alliances. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    94. 104. <ul><li>Stage 4: Skills Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources of team members are explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills members contribute to the effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden talents undiscovered </li></ul><ul><li>Surface level, stereotypes and labels </li></ul><ul><li>If talents overlap, many experts on subject, additional skills are necessary, </li></ul><ul><li>Decision: add, drop, develop the skills of members. </li></ul><ul><li>When members are added or subtracted, the team development cycle begins again. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    95. 105. <ul><li>Stage 5: Best Route </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is agreed upon, members neg. means. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for structure, power and leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: competition develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual agendas are made public. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion and alliances influence judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Close-minded about others' opinions/ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of team spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Members feel uncomfortable with fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are silent and others dominate. Commitment vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual priorities block work . </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    96. 106. <ul><li>Stage 6: Compromise and Work Together </li></ul><ul><li>give up on positions, to team interests </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes change - synergy. needs of team. </li></ul><ul><li>Members share leadership responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals disagree but ideas are heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Members listen actively. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are dealt honestly and openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances built on ideas not personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Logic for decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is viewed as a mutual problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust , openness, creative ideas emerge, and the team feels that progress is being made. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    97. 107. <ul><li>Stage 7: We Are ... </li></ul><ul><li>The team is able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on task, Be creative, innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions easily made </li></ul><ul><li>Team is aligned with goals, High trust </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Morale, loyalty, empathy, trust, acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Members agree to settle conflicts, </li></ul><ul><li>Work together on the basis of criteria identified by the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Team is effective and efficient in meeting deadlines and accomplishing its objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive results are most evident. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    98. 108. <ul><li>The right core team can make or break a project. Consider the elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Size: Good: 3-12, best: 5-7, facilitator : 7- </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: mix of different abilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical expertise and skills, administrative skills (e.g. problem-solving and decision-making skills), interpersonal and communication skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the project </li></ul></ul>Selecting the right team Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    99. 109. <ul><li>Clearly stated goals, Role clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is distributed and shared </li></ul><ul><li>Define team norms, Workload sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Team decision making -active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving, discussing team issues, and assessing team effectiveness are encouraged by all team members. </li></ul><ul><li>Team leader interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Performance monitoring and give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Team self-correction - adjustments. </li></ul><ul><li>The social environment is open and supportive with a focus on learning. </li></ul>Sustain team effectiveness Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    100. 110. <ul><li>Work load, no appropriate goals, </li></ul><ul><li>bad behavior model, </li></ul><ul><li>inadequate member recognition, </li></ul><ul><li>leader do not control, </li></ul><ul><li>not enough resources, </li></ul><ul><li>changes membership, </li></ul><ul><li>members resist responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>No support from stakeholders, </li></ul><ul><li>not enough time planning, </li></ul><ul><li>don’t resolve interpersonal conflict, </li></ul><ul><li>No compatible levels of problem-solving, </li></ul><ul><li>no clear leadership, </li></ul><ul><li>inability to make decision </li></ul>Teams’ failure barriers Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    101. 111. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    102. 112. Time Management & Delegation skills Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    103. 113. <ul><li>Measure of units </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity—same amount </li></ul><ul><li>Feels like it passes at varying speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Chance to decide how to spend a valuable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Get the most out of the least </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and learn how to spend </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time
    104. 114. <ul><li>Plan for the unplanned. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow schedule, adapting to changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the important things done. </li></ul><ul><li>Are productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Can run several activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Have short and long term goals in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep daily, weekly and monthly schedule. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Time Managers
    105. 115. <ul><li>Every night write on a card the 6 most important tasks for tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Number in the order of importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Morning look at the most important and work on it until finished. </li></ul><ul><li>Tackle item 2 the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be worried if you only complete 2 items. You’ve completed the most important tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Every night write a new card for the next day. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Management Method
    106. 116. <ul><li>Write a daily to-do list the night before. Write everything you want to accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Label each task A, B, or C. </li></ul><ul><li>A: most important: assignments due or jobs needing completion. </li></ul><ul><li>B: important, may become A’s not urgent. </li></ul><ul><li>C: not immediate, small, easy jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule time for all A. The B and C can be done in the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid C fever—C tasks are usually easier than A tasks. Use your list to keep you on track. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Management Method ABC daily to-do’s
    107. 117. <ul><li>Decide which task is most important and should be completed first. Yearly Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Place planner in an easy access position </li></ul><ul><li>Write dates assignments are due </li></ul><ul><li>Find duration required to complete task. Allow plenty of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for extra workload. </li></ul><ul><li>Set start dates for each task and write them. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw lines back from the due dates to ‘start’ dates. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Plan and Prioritize
    108. 118. <ul><li>P: Feeling anxious about workload that you freeze, put things off and don’t get done. </li></ul><ul><li>S: Set priorities, Get started. reduces anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Put off starting task because difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>S: Break up work into small achievable tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Procrastination (time on irrelevant task) </li></ul><ul><li>S: If stressed of task, putting it off is worse. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Daydreaming. Check energy level and concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>S: break, exercise, open a window and walk. </li></ul><ul><li>P: can’t begin the result will not be perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>S: aim for reasonable results. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Thieves
    109. 119. <ul><li>Don’t put off small tasks. Completing them encourages to begin tackling larger tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult tasks in parts. Approach a large task as a series of manageable parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Check if it is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Check if it is appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Check if it is efficient </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time control
    110. 120. <ul><li>Draw your circle of activities diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Draw your priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Priority A : to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Priority B : must be done </li></ul><ul><li>Priority C : should be done </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity: Circle of activities diagram
    111. 121. <ul><li>Find the targets </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the means and the resources </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who should do what and when </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Starting dates </li></ul><ul><li>Ending dates </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the results </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Programming
    112. 122. <ul><li>Our fault: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot refuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postpone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not perfectionist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junk mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useless meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting for someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations at work </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Waste of time reasons
    113. 123. <ul><li>Re-negotiate </li></ul><ul><li>Re-gain the lost time </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Use more staff </li></ul><ul><li>Replacements </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Give incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris When thing go bad
    114. 124. <ul><li>Understand how you spend your time in correlation to the personal efficiency graph </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of the means of effectiveness increase </li></ul><ul><li>Set your priorities in short, medium and long term </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the perspective action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the control processes and corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>List in hierarchical order the priorities weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Daily, prepare a “must do” list </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attaint ion to priority A </li></ul><ul><li>Always wonder if you use your time correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Read every document well ONCE </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the advices </li></ul><ul><li>Time should serve you not the opposite! </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Piece of advise
    115. 125. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=ggFaIAWZL-E Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video:
    116. 126. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Thank you very much for your attention!
    117. 127. <ul><li>What is leadership? </li></ul><ul><li>How does a leader exercise power? </li></ul><ul><li>What are leadership skills and traits? </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of leadership behavior </li></ul><ul><li>How to improve your leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>Individual determinants of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Need-based approaches to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Process approaches to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral approaches to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond motivation </li></ul>May 2, 2006 Outline
    118. 128. <ul><li>“ Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders” </li></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons whose influence on others is limited to the appointed managerial authority of their positions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons with managerial and personal power who can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons’ formal (position) authority alone </li></ul></ul>May 2, 2006 Managers vs. Leaders
    119. 129. <ul><li>Legitimate Sources of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position in the organization (formal authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coerce or punish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power (charisma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over information or access to resources (gatekeeper) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does Kitchen say about power? </li></ul>May 2, 2006 LIS580- Spring 2006 Power and Leadership
    120. 130.
    121. 131. Managers grid
    122. 132. <ul><li>Autocratic style of leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader who centralizes authority, dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic style of leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods and goals, and uses feedback to coach employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A democratic-consultative leader seeks input and hears the concerns and issues of employees but makes the final decision him or herself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a say in what’s decided </li></ul></ul>Prentice Hall, 2002 Leadership behavior and style
    123. 133. Continuum of Leader Behavior
    124. 134. <ul><li>Transactional Leadership Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership actions that focus on accomplishing the tasks at hand and on maintaining good working relationships by exchanging promises of rewards for performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational Leadership Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership actions that involve influencing major changes in the attitudes and assumptions of organization members and building commitment for the organization’s mission, objectives, and strategies. </li></ul></ul>G.Dessler, 2003 Transactional versus Transformational Leadership Behaviors
    125. 135. <ul><li>Personal Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates a compelling modesty, shunning public adulation, never boastful. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts with quiet, calm determination; relies principally on inspired standards, not inspiring charisma, to motivate . </li></ul><ul><li>Channels ambition into the company not the self; sets up successors for even more greatness in the next generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks in the mirror, not out the window, to apportion responsibility for poor results, never blaming other people, external factors, or bad luck. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Will </li></ul><ul><li>Creates superb results, a clear catalyst in the transition from good to great. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates an unwavering resolve to do whatever must be done to produce the best long-term results, no matter how difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Sets the standard of building an enduring great company; will settle for nothing less. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks out the window, not in the mirror, to apportion credit for the success of the company—to other people, external factors, and good luck. </li></ul>The Main Behaviors of Level 5 Leaders
    126. 136. How the Style of Effective Leadership Varies with the Situation Source: Adapted and reprinted by permission of the Harvard Business Review . “How the Style of Effective Leadership Varies with the Situation” from “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager” by Fred E. Fiedler, September–October 1965. Copyright © 1965 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
    127. 137.
    128. 138.
    129. 139. Summary of the Situational Leadership Model Source: Jerald Greenberg, Managing Behaviour in Organizations: Science in Service (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996). Reprinted by permission.
    130. 140. Applying the Situational Leadership Model Source: Adapted from Paul Hersey, Situational Selling (Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies, 1985), p. 19. Reprinted with permission.
    131. 141. <ul><li>Charismatic leadership theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort and, because they like and respect their leaders, express greater satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma leadership appears to be most appropriate when the followers’ task has a ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty </li></ul></ul>Charismatic Leadership
    132. 142. <ul><li>Skill 1: Think Like a Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify what is happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why it is happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what you are going to do about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill 2: Use an Appropriate Leadership Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders usually fit their style to the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different leadership styles are appropriate to different situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill 3: Pick the Right Leadership Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitate toward leadership situations that fit your favored leadership style. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill 4: Build Your Power Base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolster your leadership potential by enhancing your authority (increasing your power). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill 5: Exercise Better Judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisiveness and good judgment (“cognitive ability”) are important leadership traits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill 6: Improve Leadership Traits and Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit self-confidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display honesty and integrity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your knowledge of the business. </li></ul></ul>How To Improve Your Leadership Skills
    133. 143. <ul><li>Great Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Live with integrity, lead by example </li></ul><ul><li>develop a winning strategy or “big idea” </li></ul><ul><li>build a great management team </li></ul><ul><li>inspire employees to greatness </li></ul><ul><li>create a flexible, responsive organization </li></ul><ul><li>use reinforcing management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>passionate about what they do </li></ul><ul><li>love to talk about it </li></ul><ul><li>high energy </li></ul><ul><li>clarity of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>communicate to diverse audience </li></ul><ul><li>work through people ( empowering ) </li></ul>In Search of Leadership (article by Reingold)
    134. 144. Leaders vs. Managers <ul><li>LEADERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inspire trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a long-range view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask what and why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have eyes on horizon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do the right thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MANAGERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>administrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on systems and structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rely on control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a short-range view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask how and when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have eyes on bottom line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accept status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do things right </li></ul></ul>
    135. 145. Leadership Style Leaders must be flexible and change their styles according to the situation and the people. Situational leadership <ul><ul><li>Coercive: Impact on climate: Negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modus operandi: Demands immediate compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The style: “Do what I tell you.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to achieve, initiate, self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works best: In a crisis, to kick start, problem employ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritative: impact on climate: strongly positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modus operandi: Mobilizes people toward a vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The style “Come with me.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confidence, empathy, change catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works best: clear direction is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic: impact on climate: Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forges consensus through participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The style : “What do you think?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration, team leadership, communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works best: get input from valuable employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affiliative: impact on climate: Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates harmony and builds emotional bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The style in a phrase: “People come first.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy, building relationships, communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works best: motivate people during stressful circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacesetting: Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets high standard of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phrase: “Do as I do, now.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drive to achieve, initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works best: To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaching: Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops people for the future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Try this.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing others, empathy, self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works best: To help employee improve performance </li></ul></ul>
    136. 146. The Lesson <ul><li>Different strokes for different folks. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    137. 147. Old Style vs. New Style <ul><li>Heroic (Old) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are important people, quite apart from others who develop products and deliver services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher “up” these managers go, the more important they become. At the “top,” the chief executive is the corporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down the hierarchy comes the strategy—clear, deliberate, and bold—emanating from the chief who takes the dramatic acts. Everyone else “implements.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is the problem because while the chief embraces change, most others resist it. That is why outsiders must be favored over insiders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To manage is to make decisions and allocate resources—including those human resources. Managing thus means analyzing, often calculating, based on facts in reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards for increased performance go to the leadership. What matters is what’s measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is thrust upon those who thrust their will on others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engaging (New) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are important to the extent that they help other people who develop products and deliver services to be important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An organization is an interacting network, not a vertical hierarchy. Effective leaders work throughout; they do not sit on top. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the network emerge strategies, as engaged people solve little problems that grow into big initiatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation is the problem because it cannot be separated from formulation. That is why committed insiders are necessary to resist ill-considered changes imposed from above and without. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To manage is to bring out the positive energy that exists naturally within people. Managing thus means engaging, based on judgment, rooted in context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards for making the organization a better place go to everyone. Human values matter, few of which can be measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership is a sacred trust earned from the respect of others. </li></ul></ul>Henry Mintzberg. Managers Not MBAs. 2004. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
    138. 148. <ul><li>The quality of a leader that makes many people want to follow. Charismatic leadership involves the use of power. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to influence people to do things. </li></ul><ul><li>Five types of power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive – based on punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward – Based on rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate –Based on a role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert – Based on needed knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent – based on charisma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charisma combines power with task orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job or task involvement </li></ul></ul>Charisma Power
    139. 149. Use of power by leaders <ul><li>Socialized Charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power for social good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalized charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power for personal benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office holder Charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines legitimate power with task needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use referent power to lead </li></ul></ul>
    140. 150. Charismatic Leadership Characteristics <ul><li>Combines what the leader does (behavior) with what the leader is (characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the relationship between the leader and the followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic leaders high in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in own values </li></ul></ul>
    141. 151. Charismatic Leadership Behaviors <ul><li>Goal Articulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A transcendent goal inspires a movement - I have a dream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Image Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors that create impression of competence/success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prove his competence to the followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leader role modeling of value system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhi models self sacrificing behavior of non violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leader motive arousal behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Message inspires needs in the followers that are needed to complete the task. (message of love=needs for affiliation=required for bringing together Hindu/Moslems/Christians) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leader communication of high performance expectations of, and confidence in, followers </li></ul>
    142. 152. Follower Behaviors <ul><li>Characteristics and behaviors of the charismatic leader encourage behaviors in the followers </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, loyalty, unquestioning acceptance, obedience to the leader </li></ul><ul><li>Emulation of leader’s value system </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance by followers of challenging goals </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced self esteem and performance expectations by the followers </li></ul>
    143. 153. The Result <ul><li>Effective follower performance if the behavior is appropriate to the task being accomplished </li></ul>
    144. 154. Transactional Leadership <ul><li>Classical management </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the leader and the follower </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work for pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work for psychological benefits (status, recognition or esteem) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires appropriate role behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Requires clear goals and appropriate instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional leadership focuses on the task. </li></ul>
    145. 155. Transactional Leadership <ul><li>Puts leaders and followers on opposite sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Ebb and flow of power and reward depending on follower performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High task performance=power and rewards to the follower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low task performance=Leader exercises legitimate and coercive power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promotes “game-playing” </li></ul>
    146. 156. <ul><li>Transforms the environment and the people in it </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on building an appropriate context and on enhancing the relationships of people within the system </li></ul>The environment Transformational Leadership Follower Leader
    147. 157. Transforming the culture <ul><li>People can be trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a contribution to make </li></ul><ul><li>Complex problems should be handled at the lowest level </li></ul><ul><li>Norms are flexable adapting to changing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors are coaches, mentors, models </li></ul>
    148. 158. Transforming the leader’s behavior <ul><li>Identifying and articulating a vision ‑Behavior on the part of the leader aimed at identifying new opportunities for his or her unit/division/company, and developing, articulating, and inspiring others with his or her vision of the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an appropriate model ‑Behavior on the part of the leader that sets an example for employees to follow that is consistent with the values the leader espouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering the acceptance of group goals ‑Behavior on the part of the leader aimed at promoting cooperation among employees and getting them to work together toward a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>High performance expectations ‑Behavior that demonstrates the leader's expectations for excellence, quality, and/or high performance on the part of followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing individualized support ‑Behavior on the part of the leader that indicates that he/she respects followers and is concerned about their personal feelings and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual stimulation ‑Behavior on the part of the leader that challenges followers to re‑examine some of their assumptions about their work and rethink how it can be performed. </li></ul>