Essensial Management Skills, Berkshire collegehr7.7, UK


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  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour Harvard University
  • Oranisational Behaviour
  • Oranisational Behaviour
  • Oranisational Behaviour
  • Oranisational Behaviour
  • Essensial Management Skills, Berkshire collegehr7.7, UK

    1. 1. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris “ Essential Skills Of Management" Prof. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    2. 2. <ul><li>Elevator Speech </li></ul><ul><li>You have </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to prepare and </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes to conduct a presentation : </li></ul><ul><li>Present your self : </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training received </li></ul><ul><li>Working experience </li></ul><ul><li>Training targets </li></ul><ul><li>What is Management? </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity learning contract
    3. 3. <ul><li>Learning outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of this training the participants will be able to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>What Management is, </li></ul><ul><li>Realize what type of manager you are, </li></ul><ul><li>What coaching is, how an when to use it, </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect of communication, </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management and its dimensions, </li></ul><ul><li>Role of team and ways to built it, </li></ul><ul><li>Time management and how to delegate </li></ul><ul><li>Learn: Strategies, Techniques and Tools </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Training targets
    4. 4. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>tell me – I will forget </li></ul><ul><li>show me – I may remember </li></ul><ul><li>let me get involved – I will understand </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris What makes an effective manager?
    6. 6. <ul><li>How to manage different people in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>achieve the organisational goals? </li></ul><ul><li>utilize their outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge needed to: </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret and </li></ul><ul><li>Prognoses </li></ul><ul><li>The employee behavior at work </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager dilemma Manager dilemma
    7. 7. Result: the systems function well in relation to effective management Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Systems operations Effective management Management result a correlation of : Result
    8. 8. <ul><li>Theory Χ & Υ </li></ul><ul><li>Administration matrix Blake & Mouton </li></ul><ul><li>Administration systems Likert </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Management approaches Management approaches
    9. 9. <ul><li>Theory Χ ( Autocratic Manager) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislike to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure & guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Υ (Democratic Manager) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job is a game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chase responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Management approaches : Theory Χ&Υ <ul><li>Theory Χ ( Autocratic Manager) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislike to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure & guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Υ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job is a game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chase responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Management approaches : Administration matrix (Blake-Mouton) Υψηλό Ενδιαφέρον για ανθρώπους Χαμηλό 1,9 Λέσχης 9,9 Συνεργατικός 5,5 Εκκρεμούς 1,1 Αδύνατος 9,1 Καθήκοντος Ενδιαφέρον για παραγωγή Χαμηλό Υψηλό
    11. 11. <ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust towards the subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philanthropist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of trust ( master - slave ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consulting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of informal organisation opposing to the formal organisation goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal org. is identical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone supports the organizational goals </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Management approaches : Administration systems (Likert) Management approaches : Administration systems (Likert)
    12. 12. <ul><li>What are the results of a behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings & reactions to the below behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles and looks happy  </li></ul><ul><li>Gives without asking a return </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks   </li></ul><ul><li>Helps   </li></ul><ul><li>Listens without judging </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Gives credit </li></ul><ul><li>Receives bad behaviours with tolerance and understanding   </li></ul><ul><li>Result on: long-term relationships , trust , fame , cooperation . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity “ Positive attitude” Long term results
    13. 13. <ul><li>Communication system . Dictates : </li></ul><ul><li>What has to be done , </li></ul><ul><li>How it should be done , </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do it , </li></ul><ul><li>Who reports to whom , </li></ul><ul><li>Level of decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of skills, </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale, </li></ul><ul><li>Easy replacement, </li></ul><ul><li>Intense usage of equipment, </li></ul><ul><li>Easy monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Monotony, </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest, </li></ul><ul><li>Low quality, </li></ul><ul><li>Low productivity, </li></ul><ul><li>High turnover </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Organization chart Γ. Δ/ΝΤΗΣ Δ/ΝΤΗΣ Α Δ/ΝΤΗΣ Α Δ/ΝΤΗΣ Α Τμ/χης Τμ/χης Πρ/νος Πρ/νος Τμ/χης Πρ/νος Πρ/νος
    14. 14. <ul><li>The employees accept the power when they: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the orders </li></ul><ul><li>Feel orders are compatible with the organisational goals </li></ul><ul><li>The orders do not conflict their personal beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Are able to execute the task in the way it was assigned to them </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Chester Barnard
    15. 15. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Human factor Human factor Most problems does not concern practical issues but issues related to HUMANS .
    16. 16. <ul><li>The result through people and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sets goals and agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies roles </li></ul><ul><li>Plans tasks for execution </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Sets timetable </li></ul><ul><li>Follows a method of result evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Controls and Monitors if task is correctly done </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate task </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Credit to employees </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager
    17. 17. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Priority: Relationship High Low 9 Priority: Task 1 9 (1.9) (9.9) (1.1) (9.1) Team Army Club High Manager stance
    18. 18. <ul><li>One way communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager says to the team: </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Has to be done for the particular task </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Task
    19. 19. <ul><li>Two way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provides Socio – Emotional support </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust, respect, dialogue, listening, encouragement </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Relationship Manager Member
    20. 20. <ul><li>Says BRAVO </li></ul><ul><li>Asks for ideas and propositions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages and ensures the member that he can do the job </li></ul><ul><li>Listens to the members’ problems and helps them to find a solution </li></ul><ul><li>If a member is done well he lets everyone know </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Manager behaviour: Relationship The manager:
    21. 21. <ul><li>As the member’s readiness increases, </li></ul><ul><li>the manager’s task behavior is decreasing and the relationship behavior increases . </li></ul><ul><li>Management Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Technical: knowledge and proficiency in work (competencies in field, analytical ability, ability to use appropriate tools and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Human: knowledge and ability to work with people. Assist to achieve a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual: ability to work with ideas. To be comfortable at seeing the bigger picture and translate this understanding into words everyone understands. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective manager
    22. 22. <ul><li>Giving many responsibilities, simultaneously in short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the relationship behavior, without a simultaneous desired result. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Possible problems
    23. 23. The race
    24. 26. ΤΕΡΜΑ
    25. 33. ΤΕΡΜΑ
    26. 36. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    27. 37. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Exploring your managerial style
    28. 38. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Middle manager Successful carrier Effective manager 32% 28% 44% 20% 11% 26% 19% 48% 11% 13% 19% 29% Effective manager Traditional : Make decisions, plans, controls Communication administrator : Manages information Personnel : Encourages, conflic man., hires, trains Public Relations: Builds social relations , external factors
    29. 39. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Humane Vision - strategies Technical Required skills General manager Managers Supervisors
    30. 40. <ul><li>Provides directives and monitors closely </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpless, unwilling, unskilled </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 1 : high task low relationship
    31. 41. <ul><li>The manager explains the decision and provides the chance for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue and explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak, helpless , willing , enthusiast </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 2 high task high relationship
    32. 42. <ul><li>The manager shares ideas and assists in the decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the supervisor and subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinate encouraged by supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><li>capable, sure, insecure </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 3 low task high relationship
    33. 43. <ul><li>The manager gives away the decision and implementation responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Words used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives room </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capable , willing , secure </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Style 4 low task low relationship
    34. 44. <ul><li>Place the animals below in line . </li></ul><ul><li>Lion, dog, parrot, elephant . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity ”Self - perception through others”     lion dog parrot elephant I want others to see me as:             Other see me as: In the future I want others to see me as: I really want to be:
    35. 45. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity ”Self - perception through others”   lion dog parrot elephant authority fearless independent decision pro-acts leader subjective focussed       protect reliable trusting capable loving   friend faithful Support Active Joyful free spirit social open Popular attractive passion spontaneous           passive tolerant passive cooperate respect Strong controlled Calm Sacred Wise
    36. 46. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Has time to listen to others </li></ul><ul><li>Respects others and sees their human side, not only results </li></ul><ul><li>Has an interest on others on a personal basis and helps other solve the problems </li></ul><ul><li>Good role model </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens and encourages others to believe in themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Does not pretend to be the ‘boss’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Shares info with others . </li></ul><ul><li>Give credit for good results. </li></ul><ul><li>Give info when results are not expected . </li></ul> Directives for managers
    37. 47. <ul><li>Once upon a time there was a frog race . </li></ul><ul><li>The aim was to get on the top of a tower . </li></ul><ul><li>A lot gathered to support them . </li></ul><ul><li>That race started… . In reality, everyone thought that it was an inevitable task. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone was shouting: “what a waste, they will never make it to the top” </li></ul><ul><li>The frogs begun having doubts of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>One after the other admitted that they could not make it. All but one! At the end and after a tremendous effort he made it. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the rest asked him how did he made it, when they realized the winner frog was deaf !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: always pretend to be deaf when other tells you that you will not make it. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris The frog
    38. 48. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Lunch
    39. 49. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Managing Conflicts
    40. 50. <ul><li>A situation at which two or more sides consider (correctly or not) that their goals are opposite and each side is trying to prevent the other from accomplishing their goals . </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of threat, or actual conflict, is necessary for the initiation of conflict prevention or management measures, and it is essential to address the concept of conflict before exploring how to prevent and manage such occurrences. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict
    41. 51. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict Life Cycle
    42. 52. <ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul><ul><li>To be negative </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Colliding interests </li></ul><ul><li>Different beliefs, values, expectations, priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Different personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Scarce resources </li></ul>Conflict reasons Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    43. 53. Video Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video 4: Conflict Management
    44. 54. <ul><li>A result of : </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes , </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement, </li></ul><ul><li>Is originated from trouble makers . </li></ul><ul><li>Damages the organization </li></ul><ul><li>It is inevitable but sometimes, useful , when it is required to be effective and creative . </li></ul>Conflict Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    45. 55. <ul><ul><li>Disorients the attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non productive situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict results Disadvantages :
    46. 56. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Encourages the change Activates the innovation Give to a problem a new perspective Reveals hidden issues Promotes accumulated emotions expression Increase the commitment and the interest A chance for learning Conflict results Advantages :
    47. 57. <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to listen </li></ul><ul><li>No going back from the positions </li></ul><ul><li>Blame the others </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Attacking </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict pre-messages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    48. 58. <ul><li>Human reactions under pressure, stress, threat . </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Resist </li></ul><ul><li>increase voice volume </li></ul><ul><li>Show with the pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Blame others </li></ul><ul><li>Look intensively </li></ul><ul><li>Hit the table with the hand </li></ul><ul><li>Run </li></ul><ul><li>Look elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Go back </li></ul><ul><li>Speak calmly </li></ul><ul><li>Change subject </li></ul><ul><li>Agree fast </li></ul>resist or run
    49. 59. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dominance Cooperation Compromise Avoidance Adjust Cooperation Assertiveness Win - lose Win - Win Conflict choices
    50. 60. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Conflict management Conflict resolution The limitation, easing and control of a conflict without necessarily solving it. Change from destructive to constructive, in the mode of interaction. Solve of incompatibilities and mutual acceptance of each party’s existence, Aim: resolving or terminating conflicts or increase cooperation and deepen their relationship.
    51. 61. Video Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video 5: Conflict Resolution
    52. 62. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Communication & Influencing Skills
    53. 63. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    54. 64. <ul><li>Reflect on job you’ve been involved in. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the job. </li></ul><ul><li>What were the most successful features? </li></ul><ul><li>What went wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    55. 65. Facts <ul><li>Statistics show that 74% of projects are unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the factors that contribute to the corporate failure is poor or insufficient communication. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    56. 66. Communication process components <ul><li>message, </li></ul><ul><li>source, </li></ul><ul><li>encoding, </li></ul><ul><li>channel, </li></ul><ul><li>decoding, </li></ul><ul><li>receiver, </li></ul><ul><li>feedback, </li></ul><ul><li>noise, </li></ul><ul><li>context and </li></ul><ul><li>shared meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction: Primary point of effective communication </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    57. 67. Communication types <ul><li>Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral: face-to-face or group meetings, telephone. voice, body language, attitude and nuances. </li></ul><ul><li>Written: Memos, Letters, Minutes, Reports, Documentation, Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal: dress code, voice tone, stance. </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdote: NASA neg., hands under table. </li></ul><ul><li>Body language can improve the level of understanding. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    58. 68. Communication Issues <ul><li>Downwards Communication (Man. to Staff) </li></ul><ul><li>Directives through speeches and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Company internal newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Regular reports on performance </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing details and Warns employees </li></ul><ul><li>Upwards Communication (Staff to Man.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reports , Problems and difficulties, </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion boxes, open door policy, face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal communication (Among depts.) </li></ul><ul><li>co­ordination and problem-solving. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    59. 69. Language Issues <ul><li>Need to Understand Each Other </li></ul><ul><li>– Expressions used </li></ul><ul><li>– Different interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Team Spirit </li></ul><ul><li>– Harmony of the Team </li></ul><ul><li>– Need for co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on Language, Terms & Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>• Misunderstandings are Reason for Failures </li></ul><ul><li>• Efficient Communication Requires that only ONE single official Language is applied </li></ul><ul><li>• Important Terms and Definitions need to be described </li></ul><ul><li>Terms, Definitions and Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for understanding </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    60. 70. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Break Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    61. 71. <ul><li>Process in which info is exchanged and understood with the intention of influencing behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Sender: person wishing to convey a message (idea or info), to others, by encoding the idea in symbols (words). </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver: person to whom the message is sent by decoding the symbols. During encoding and decoding errors arise. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel: message is conveyed through (note, memo, letter, report, telephone call or face-to-face meeting). </li></ul><ul><li>Noise: the distortion when translating symbols to meaning (experience, attitudes and knowledge affecting perception). </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: two-way comm., the receiver to the sender in the form of a return message or reaction </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Communication process
    62. 72. <ul><li>Impersonal, static: bulletins & general reports (does not permit feedback) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal, static (richer): Memos, letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive channels: phone and e-mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical presence (richest): face-to-face. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing the richness: </li></ul><ul><li>ability to handle multiple signals simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>degree allows rapid two-way comm. </li></ul><ul><li>ability to permit comm. on personal basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a channel: </li></ul><ul><li>Message unusual and non-routine: rich channel, as misunderstandings of new events can so easily arise (under pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Routine messages: statistics or minutes of meetings, can be conveyed through a less rich channel. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Channel Richness: amount of info that can be transmitted
    63. 73. <ul><li>When a person communicates through actions and behaviour, messages of a nonverbal nature are transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal: high proportion of messages sent and received. </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding in a face-to-face discussion is achieved through facial expressions, tone of voice, posture and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Research study: </li></ul><ul><li>major factors in </li></ul><ul><li>face-to-face: </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal impact : 7 % </li></ul><ul><li>Non- vocal impact: 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Facial impact: 55 % </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Communication Non-verbal
    64. 74. <ul><li>'It's not what you say, but how you say it'. </li></ul><ul><li>(thoughts and feelings, conveyed through body language, conflict with the saying). </li></ul><ul><li>The receiver concentrate on the behavioural aspects than on the saying. </li></ul><ul><li>When nonverbal signals support verbal message, they act as reinforcement. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Communication Non-verbal
    65. 75. Video Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video 6: “ Interview”
    66. 76. <ul><li>Listening: managers must develop a skill for listening to stakeholders and their employees. </li></ul><ul><li>This skill enables one to receive and interpret, or decode, messages in terms of the facts and the feelings they convey. </li></ul><ul><li>It is then possible to provide effective feedback. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Communication
    67. 77. <ul><li>To what extent do you agree with this view? </li></ul><ul><li>“ To convince others, first convince yourself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Link your response to a typical project you are familiar with, paying special attention to the issue of successful interaction. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    68. 78. <ul><li>Humor: A joke relaxes a tense atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: members can readily relate. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors: good dully speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Language: individuals feel as part of the interaction, i.e. ‘Let us’ not ‘Let me’; ‘We are going to’ not ‘I am going to’; etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatise issues or narrate short stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: showing attention and cooperation i.e,. “you are listening, judging by your contribution”. </li></ul><ul><li>Make members achieving: “At this speed, we are getting there”, or “The good ideas have taken us far”, </li></ul><ul><li>Bad message: “This project is making our hair turn grey”, or “We always tremble when we think about this monstrous project”, or “Colleagues, I think there is burnout on account of this project” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask referential questions while you are making the presentation. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Communication techniques
    69. 79. <ul><li>How does citation of examples during presentation bring your message to life? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does good humour improve interactivity when the project manager is putting across ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest any two referential or open-ended questions that you can use to bring your message to life. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think such questions achieve the goal of enlivening your message? </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity
    70. 80. <ul><li>Comment on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What it is said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their personalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You have 1 minute per picture . </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: body language, gestures,… </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity “ photos”
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    84. 94. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Building High Performance Teams
    85. 95. <ul><li>Group: collection of people who come together because they share something in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Team: group of people who share a common name, mission, history, set of goals or objectives and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Teambuilding: process needed to create, maintain, and enrich the development of a group of people into a cohesive unit. </li></ul>Group ,Team, Teambuilding Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    86. 96. Video Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video7: “ Mule”
    87. 97. <ul><li>Cohesiveness: membership has value added. </li></ul><ul><li>Social: interpersonal attraction bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Task: way in which skills and abilities of members mix for optimal performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & Norms: govern members behavior. Define roles to handle with the task requirements. Are discussed and accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: Norms will develop governing communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Specification: common goals clarified. </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence: how each member’s success is determined, at least in part, by the success of the other members. </li></ul>Teambuilding issues Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    88. 98. <ul><li>Read statement. When agree + or disagree -. There are no right or wrong answers. Arrive at a consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork strangle creativity and individuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Members should attend meetings to set team goals and discuss team problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal goals can be accomplished through teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to ignore the feelings of others in order to reach a team decision. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, conflict should be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>A silent member is not interested in working as a team. </li></ul><ul><li>The person in the group with the highest status in the organization should always take the leadership role. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, it is important and necessary to allow time for discussion and agreement on operating procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Every member is contributing toward the group task. </li></ul><ul><li>In teamwork, &quot;majority rule&quot; applies. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork involves working toward a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>A good team member provides emotional support to all other members. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team needs a leader/coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork accomplishes a task more effectively and efficiently than individual efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team member should contribute equally toward accomplishing the task. </li></ul><ul><li>If a team fails to accomplish a task, it is the fault of the leader/coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>A primary concern of all team members should be to establish an atmosphere where all feel free to express their opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Final power in teamwork always rests with the leader/ coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>There are often occasions when an individual who is part of the team should do what he/she thinks is right, regardless of what the team has decided to do. </li></ul><ul><li>All members must be committed to the team approach to accomplish the task. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Activity Teambuilding
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    91. 101. <ul><li>Staff meetings (agenda and time to discuss) </li></ul><ul><li>Job descriptions with annual review </li></ul><ul><li>Know others' job descriptions and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Common criteria for personnel evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and willingness to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, Loyalty, Respect for privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness and Respect for others in spite of differences </li></ul><ul><li>Respect regardless of sex, age, race </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing talents of the others </li></ul><ul><li>Giving credit, Recognizing a job well done </li></ul><ul><li>Pride in work of total staff </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and support others' programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed upon priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee-making shared by all, Shared coffee breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation of pertinent information </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to talk over problems </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate facilities and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation, Constructive criticism </li></ul>Factors That Promote Working Relationships Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    92. 102. <ul><li>Members are committed to the value of working together. </li></ul><ul><li>Team size: 2-5 ideal, 5-10 workable, 10-15 difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Members know org . objectives, roles & responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Members establish and clarify guidelines and procedures for a working relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Members define and agree meaningful and measurable objectives that meet both group and personal needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone assumes leadership to coordinate effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Members do well in many roles (initiating, informing, summarizing, mediating, encouraging) and know when. </li></ul><ul><li>Members know others‘ resources, skills and expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>The group allows time for teamwork effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Work orientation first, but allows social interaction, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Members listen attentively, encourage participation and sharing of ideas and expression of views. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence in others' abilities, support one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Members use conflict productively. </li></ul>Attributes of Ideal Teamwork Relationships Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    93. 103. <ul><li>Working together in a team effort? </li></ul><ul><li>Team work - superior to individual work? </li></ul><ul><li>Personal commitment to team effort? </li></ul><ul><li>Know member and what they can offer? </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in roles, having skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Member has different area of expertise? </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise accepted by all members? </li></ul><ul><li>Areas overlap with potential conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Team sets rules for the operation? </li></ul><ul><li>Group agreed upon: goals, timetable, priorities, conflict resolution meetings: length, location, resources allocation, leadership requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Team goes through stages of development? </li></ul><ul><li>Enough time to operate as a team? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the group designated a team leader? </li></ul>Questions: Team Building and Working in Groups Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    94. 104. <ul><li>Team has a climate of trust and respect? </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between task and member needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Form alliances (rumors) affect productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Group focus on mission not socializing? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you assume a variety of roles?: Initiating activity, seeking info., seeking opinion, giving info., giving opinion, elaborating, coordinating, summarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Building Roles: Encouraging, standard setting, following and expressing group feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Task and Team Building Roles: Evaluating, diagnosing, testing for consensus, mediating, and relieving tension </li></ul>Questions : Maintaining Team Effort Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    95. 105. <ul><li>Members can participate or dominants power control the participation? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify interests of members that may cause conflict in reaching a decision? </li></ul><ul><li>Minority viewpoints treated with respect? </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion difference or ignoring them? Members separate an idea from the person? </li></ul><ul><li>Members discuss areas of conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Group avoid a &quot;wait until next meeting” attitude toward decision and conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Effort to understand problem before finding solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Team premature conclusions? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving procedures identified? </li></ul>Questions: decision-make, conflict resolution Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    96. 106. <ul><li>Forming: orientation period. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unsure about what it is supposed to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not know each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storming: members find place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel comfortable giving opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start of intragroup conflicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norming: use experiences to solve problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures: goals, conflicts, decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performing: achieve harmony, define tasks, work out relationships, produce results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work together, manage conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissolving or reorientating </li></ul>Tuckman's model Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    97. 107. <ul><li>Stage 1: Getting acquainted. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief: everyone should “get along” and be in agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve unstable balance, people pretend </li></ul><ul><li>No-one is happy does not perform well. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>polite surface dialogue, info-sharing, </li></ul><ul><li>develop stereotypes to categorize others, </li></ul><ul><li>emotions and feelings are in tight control, </li></ul><ul><li>disagreement is avoided, </li></ul><ul><li>unspoken agreement not to disagree, </li></ul><ul><li>there is a shared uncertainty about the specific task to be undertaken by the team. </li></ul>Team Development Stage 1 Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    98. 108. <ul><li>Stage 2: Destination </li></ul><ul><li>Individual disagreements will arise </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend everything is OK </li></ul><ul><li>Try to convert others to their point of view </li></ul><ul><li>“ Camps” can evolve in this stage </li></ul><ul><li>Teams do not perform well </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Question of goals, reasons for effort, </li></ul><ul><li>Members express divergent opinions, </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening develops, no understanding, </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain timetable develops, </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimates member contribution. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    99. 109. <ul><li>Stage 3: costs/benefits of effort </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Will effort have value for me? </li></ul><ul><li>Team help me achieve individual goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Individual contribution big & benefit small </li></ul><ul><li>I do work and team receive recognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Nonproductive members get rewards? </li></ul><ul><li>Others make comparable contributions? </li></ul><ul><li>All share the workload? </li></ul><ul><li>Team benefit from such an effort? </li></ul><ul><li>Members with similar needs and viewpoints form private alliances. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    100. 110. <ul><li>Stage 4: Skills Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources of team members are explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills members contribute to the effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden talents undiscovered. </li></ul><ul><li>Surface level, stereotypes and labels </li></ul><ul><li>If talents overlap, many experts on subject, additional skills are necessary, </li></ul><ul><li>Decision: add, drop, develop the skills of members. </li></ul><ul><li>When members are added or subtracted, the team development cycle begins again. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    101. 111. <ul><li>Stage 5: Best Route </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is agreed upon, members neg. means. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for structure, power and leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: competition develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual agendas are made public. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion and alliances influence judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Close-minded about others' opinions/ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of team spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Members feel uncomfortable with fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are silent and others dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual priorities block work . </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    102. 112. <ul><li>Stage 6: Compromise and Work Together </li></ul><ul><li>give up on positions to team interests </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes change - synergy. needs of team. </li></ul><ul><li>Members share leadership responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals disagree but ideas are heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Members listen actively. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are dealt honestly and openly. </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances built on ideas not personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Logic for decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is viewed as a mutual problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust, openness, creative ideas emerge, and the team feels that progress is being made. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    103. 113. <ul><li>Stage 7: We Are a TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>The team is able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on task, be creative, innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions easily made </li></ul><ul><li>Team is aligned with goals, high trust </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Morale, loyalty, empathy, trust, acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Members agree to settle conflicts, </li></ul><ul><li>Work together on the basis of criteria identified by the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Team is effective and efficient in meeting deadlines and accomplishing its objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive results are most evident. </li></ul>Team Development Stages Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    104. 114. <ul><li>The right core team can make or break a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good: 3-12, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: 5-7, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator need : 7- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition: mix of different abilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical expertise, administrative skills (e.g. problem-solving and decision-making skills), interpersonal and communication skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the project </li></ul></ul>Right team Selection Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    105. 115. <ul><li>Who team members, leaders? </li></ul><ul><li>Reason for this team, vision, goals ? </li></ul><ul><li>Norms guide: how team work together? </li></ul><ul><li>Result expected for team? To whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to be followed by team? </li></ul><ul><li>Team roles and who will play them? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the responsible for these roles? </li></ul><ul><li>Norms and methodologies about: decision, problem-solving, conflict resolution, communication, cooperation, task man., responsibility, meetings, rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available to support teamwork? </li></ul>Questions: Team building Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    106. 116. <ul><li>One person to speak at a time, Don't interrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand others. Respect the views of all participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone participates. Speak openly and honestly </li></ul><ul><li>Each person speaks on his behalf. If you don’t understand something, ask for clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for actions and results. </li></ul><ul><li>Say what you mean, mean what you say. </li></ul><ul><li>Members can disagree without fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative feedback: calmly, timely, privately, using present information, focused on issues and behaviors (not individuals). </li></ul><ul><li>Disagree with what was said, but not with who said it. </li></ul><ul><li>Give specific positive feedback (recognition) right away in public, but adapted to the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate immediately if you think you may not be able to fulfill an agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>If you see a problem that others haven’t noticed, bring it to someone’s attention. </li></ul>Team Norms: Acceptable standards of behaviors shared by members. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    107. 117. <ul><li>Clearly stated goals, role clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is distributed and shared </li></ul><ul><li>Define team norms, workload sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Team decision making -active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving, discussing team issues, and assessing team effectiveness are encouraged by all team members. </li></ul><ul><li>Team leader interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Performance monitoring and give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Team self-correction, adjustments. </li></ul><ul><li>The social environment is open and supportive with a focus on learning. </li></ul>Sustain team effectiveness Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
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    109. 119. Time Management & Delegation skills Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris
    110. 120. <ul><li>Measure of units </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity—same amount </li></ul><ul><li>Feels like it passes at varying speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management: </li></ul><ul><li>Chance to decide how to spend a valuable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Get the most out of the least </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and learn how to spend </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time
    111. 121. <ul><li>Plan for the unplanned. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow schedule, adapting to changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Get the important things done. </li></ul><ul><li>Are productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Can run several activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Have short and long term goals in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep daily, weekly and monthly schedule. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective Time Managers
    112. 122. <ul><li>Every night write on a card the 6 most important tasks for tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Number in the order of importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Morning look at the most important and work on it until finished. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin item 2 the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t worry if you only complete 2 items. Most important tasks completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Every night write a card for the next day. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Man.1 Method
    113. 123. <ul><li>Decide: most important task and should be completed first. </li></ul><ul><li>Place planner in an easy access position </li></ul><ul><li>Write dates assignments are due </li></ul><ul><li>Find duration required to complete task. Allow plenty of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for extra workload. </li></ul><ul><li>Set start dates for each task and write them. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw lines back from the due dates to ‘start’ dates. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Plan and Prioritize
    114. 124. <ul><li>P: Feeling anxious about workload that you freeze, put things off and don’t get done. </li></ul><ul><li>S: Set priorities, Get started. Reduces anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Put off starting task because difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>S: Break up work into small achievable tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Time on irrelevant task </li></ul><ul><li>S: If stressed of task, putting it off is worse. </li></ul><ul><li>P: Daydreaming. Check energy level and concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>S: break, exercise, open a window and walk. </li></ul><ul><li>P: can’t begin the result will not be perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>S: aim for reasonable results. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Thieves
    115. 125. <ul><li>Find the targets </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the means and the resources </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who should do what and when </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Starting dates </li></ul><ul><li>Ending dates </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the results </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Programming
    116. 126. <ul><li>Our fault: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot refuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postpone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not perfectionist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junk mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useless meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting for someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations at work </li></ul></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Waste of time reasons
    117. 127. <ul><li>Understand how you spend your time </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of means of effectiveness increase </li></ul><ul><li>Set your priorities in short, medium and long term </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the perspective action plans </li></ul><ul><li>Determine control processes & corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>List in hierarchical order the priorities weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Daily, prepare a “must do” list </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attaint ion to priority A </li></ul><ul><li>Always wonder if you use your time correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Do things,well ONCE </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the advices </li></ul><ul><li>Time should serve you not the opposite! </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Piece of advise
    118. 128. Video Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Video 9: “Pman in 60’’”
    119. 129. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Time Management & Delegation Skills
    120. 130. <ul><li>Delegate by giving directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the way delegation is aligned with the organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Define mutually accepted assessment models. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the expected results </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for their questions </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss repeated problems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the ideas about the way a task should be executed </li></ul><ul><li>Point the positive aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Support the subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Show that they are trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize their work </li></ul><ul><li>Keep promises </li></ul><ul><li>Never take back duties set </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris The “must” of delegation
    121. 131. <ul><li>Threat the employees </li></ul><ul><li>Just give answers </li></ul><ul><li>Overreact to problems </li></ul><ul><li>Criticize employees at the presence of others </li></ul><ul><li>Over control </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris When delegating Never
    122. 132. <ul><li>Delegation involves passing responsibility for completion of work to other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Know how you work, </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for jobs you have no time </li></ul><ul><li>Develop people to look after routine tasks </li></ul><ul><li>To people whose skills are better than yours, saving time. </li></ul><ul><li>Develops staff, and can increase enjoyment </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Reasons for delegation
    123. 133. <ul><li>What: list things or activity log. </li></ul><ul><li>Who: Good will do. Not supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete jobs: more satisfying. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why, results: overall picture. Result needed, importance, constraints, deadlines, reporting dates, let go! </li></ul><ul><li>Help when requested: support. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept only finished work </li></ul><ul><li>Give credit when a job has been successfully completed: Public recognition </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris How to delegate
    124. 134. <ul><li>Explain importance of job: understand role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How their success impact the team, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding will drive commitment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define results expected: to be achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid dictating “exact” steps to follow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offer information and support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sense of ownership to person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define authority: remove barriers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide authority to accomplishing task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agree on deadline: schedule and how. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for feedback: repeat understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up controls: Schedule times for updates and feedback to prevent unexpected results and surprises. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Effective delegation
    125. 135. <ul><li>Lack of time: invest time in training people to take over tasks. Jobs may take longer. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionism: let make mistakes, and help them to correct them. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoying by myself: inefficient. Time cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Surrender authority: adequate time to do the job well. </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming invisible: think and plan and improve operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff cannot do it: Good people will often under-perform if they are bored. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Delegation failure
    126. 136. <ul><li>No delegation: “Do exactly what I say”. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask analysis but no recommendation. “Look this and tell me results. I'll decide”. </li></ul><ul><li>Asks recommendation but check thinking. “Give me pros, cons, recommendation. I'll let you know whether you can go ahead.” </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted to judge but needs approval. “let me know decision, but wait for my go”. </li></ul><ul><li>The other control. “Decide and let me know, then go ahead unless I say not to”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Decide, act, let me know what you did”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Decide and take action. You need not check back with me” </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Seven delegation levels
    127. 137. <ul><li>Manager decides and announces decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Manager decides and sells decision </li></ul><ul><li>The manager presents the decision with background ideas and invites questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager suggests a provisional decision and invites discussion about it. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager presents the situation, gets suggestions, and then decides. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager explains the situation, defines the parameters and asks the team to decide. </li></ul><ul><li>The manager allows the team to identify the problem, develop the options, and decide on the action, within the manager's received limits. </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Levels of delegated freedom
    128. 138. <ul><li>Effective delegation involves achieving the correct balance between effective control of work and letting people get on with jobs in their own way. </li></ul><ul><li>The related with the ….. </li></ul><ul><li>The control of team. </li></ul><ul><li>Power of discipline enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Morale maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>General control </li></ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate: think that as a weakness of manager (lack of knowledge, skills etc.) </li></ul>Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Duties not allocated
    129. 139. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris <ul><li>Loss of control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff not utilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste of human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right task to the right staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reverse delegation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task goes from employee to manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Position Loss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manager is not needed </li></ul></ul>Danger
    130. 140. Dr. Dimitrios P. Kamsaris Thank you very much for your attention!