Using Humor And Metaphorical Thinking In Your Work


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  • - VM Being a “professional” – opposite of fun or amusement. Not much is written about it. See Nevo’s right-hand side of page 1.Advantages       There are several advantages of using humor in counseling are:        it reduces tension (Gladdin, 1995)        it promotes insight (Gladdin, 1995)        it helps to "realize and appreciate anew the realities of life," that is, by appreciating the funny side of an event we may             realize the other aspect of the event, the serious one (Gladdin, 1995)        it helps to reduce the client's resistance to change (Gladdin, 1995)        it helps to deal with taboo subjects (Gladdin, 1995)        it can bring the idealized counselor back to reality (Barry cited in Franzini, 2001)        it allows the counselor to show their humanness (Dreikurs cited in Franzini, 2001)        it makes the sessions vivid (Ellis cited in Franzini, 2001)        it increases group cohesion (Maples et al., 2001)         it allows us to get information about the client way of living and approach to life (Maples et al., 2001)Disadvantages        it cannot be used with every client because some of them lack a sense of humor (Gladdin, 1995)        it can be seen as a put-down (Gladdin, 1995)        it can create an equivocal image of counseling when it is used excessively (Gladdin, 1995)         it can be seen as insensitive when is badly timed (Gladdin, 1995)         it can foster the avoidance of "some aspect of reality" that the client must deal with (Goldin and Bordan, 1999)        it can create feelings of ridicule in the client when used inappropriately (Bloomfield cited in Franzini, 2001)        it could produce misinterpretations (Wolfe cited in Franzini, 2001)        it can imbalance the working relationship (Thomson cited in Franzini, 2001)   
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  • – No actual blueprints…
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  • VMNative Americans include humor as part of their everyday living as a way of sharing and connecting with each other, as well as teaching important lessons, through the use of stories ( Maples et al., 2001).  They can laugh about difficult situations. Humor allows them to take away their sorrow or pain (Herring & Meggert, 1994).  Therefore, in counseling humor can be seen as a coping mechanism and also as a way of raising connectedness between the counselor and client (Maples et al., 2001).  Nevertheless, we should not forget to be cautions.  According to Maples et al. (2001) humor can be used if the client "invites it" first.  Herring and Meggert (1994) suggests that using "Native American Indian themes and values" is a good strategy to incorporating humor, as well as other forms of storytelling, like puppets and imagination.Asian Americans are perceived as lacking sense of humor due to their differences in expressiveness of emotions.   In their culture there is a particular way of including humor.  Usually it is used within the family context (close family, extended family and close friends)-- the insiders.  They make fun of themselves or of the other members to teach different lessons, but this is not applied to outsiders because is seen as disrespectful.  This has an important implication for counseling -- become an insider in order to be able to be trusted and to use humor (Maples et al., 2001).  Lee (as cited in Maples et al., 2001) suggest to avoid direct teasing and to reduce the number of self-depicting comments because this affects the image the client forms about us.Hispanics include humor in their lives, but before using it in the counseling setting, one must be aware of the different aspects of their culture.  Maples et al. (2001) suggests that humor should be combined with elements like familiarismo, respeto, personalismo, machismo and marianismo in order to produce an effective outcome.  They also recommend to increase the trust and respect by getting involved in community activities to "become a 'member of the family'" and facilitating this intervention.use humor when relating to each other and the African American Counselor enjoys this commonality and is able to use humorAfrican Americans  that focuses on stereotypes and myths, as stated by Maples et al. (2001).  It is essential to consider ethnic differences between counselor and client before using this intervention and also to consider the level of racial identity each one has.  According to Helms (1990) considering the type of relationship between the counselor and client is crucial.  Applying his theory of Dyad's Race to humor, one can state that the dynamics vary between a parallel dyad, a progressive and a regressive dyad.
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  • DKIdeas are food: What he said left a bad taste in my mouth.Ideas are people: The theory of relativity gave birth to a whole new field of physics. Ideas are plants: That idea died on the vine. Ideas are products: We generated several new ideas and then he produced yet another one. Ideas are commodities: How you package your idea determines how well you can sell it. Ideas are resources: Those are good thoughts, don’t waste them. He ran out of ideas. Ideas are money: Let me get my two cents worth in. Ideas are cutting instruments: That cuts right to the heart of the issue. He has razor sharp wit.Ideas are fashions: That idea went out of style years ago.
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  • Using Humor And Metaphorical Thinking In Your Work

    1. 1. Using Humor & Metaphors in Your WorkCPAD<br /> Darren Kaltved, M.Ed.<br />Vic Massaglia, M.A.<br />
    2. 2. "He who laughs; lasts."<br />~ Anonymous<br />"Laughter is the shortest distance between two people."<br /> ~ Victor Borge<br />
    3. 3. How Many Times A Day Do Adults Laugh?<br />
    4. 4. 150-400<br />15<br />Laughs per Day<br />90<br />80<br />70<br />60<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />Grown ups<br />Children<br />Fake Graph, Smith 2004 ;43 (2), Imaginary Journal<br />
    5. 5. Adults<br />Kids<br />Laughs per Day<br />Another Fake Graph, Smith 2005 ;43 (2), Imaginary Journal<br />
    6. 6. Benefits of Humor<br />Holistic <br />Treatment of the critically ill & terminally ill<br />Adds in defending against infections<br />Good for respiratory and cardio vascular system – stimulates immune system<br />Reduces stress<br />One of the best devices to combat burn-out<br />Nevo & Foster<br />
    7. 7.  How Does Humor Help the Counseling Relationship?<br />(if you agree it does)<br />
    8. 8.  How Does Humor Help the Counseling Relationship?<br />Building the relationship:  it produces a bond between the therapist and the client.  It also facilitates rapport and self-disclosure (Golding & Bordan, 1999).  According to Maples et al. (2001)  it helps establish a more collaborative and friendly relation. <br />Increasing Communication and Attending:  through humor, messages can be expressed in an indirect and less threatening way, allowing the client to attend and understand what is being said. <br />
    9. 9.  How Does Humor Help the Counseling Relationship?<br />Changing Feelings:  humor allows people to experience for a period of time a relief from their depressive or anxious mood. <br />Changing Thoughts:  humor allows clients to change the way they perceive different situations  by  giving a new perspective or through incongruity. <br />Changing Behavior:  when people are in a better mood they become more active, may try out new activities.<br />
    10. 10. HUMOR’S EFFECTIVENESS:A “CLEESIAN” PERSPECTIVE<br />I. Humor facilitates learning.<br />II. Humor helps change people’s behavior.<br />III. Humor promotes an increase in creativity.<br />IV. Humor reduces stress.<br />From the videotape “Humor Is Not A Luxury” <br />by John Cleese, available from Video Arts<br />
    11. 11. Five Things Humor Will Do For You:<br />Releases negative emotions such as anger & guilt <br />Improves enthusiasm for work <br />Reduces inhibitions & increases self-confidence <br />Humorous people face life's problems better <br />Sense of humor is the #1 romantically attractive trait <br />Kevin Lee Smith<br />
    12. 12. KEYS TO THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF HUMOR<br />Relationship<br />Rapport<br />Setting<br />Timing<br />Jim Winter -<br />
    13. 13. I. RELATIONSHIP<br />Know your audience<br />Make your intentions clear<br />Tell stories with a purpose<br />
    14. 14. II. RAPPORT<br />Understand your audience’s feelings<br />Should be laughing with, not at someone<br />Obtain permission to tease<br />
    15. 15. Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever<br />“2001 summer Voluntary work for taking care of the elderly and vegetable people”<br />Candidate wrote resume as a play – Act 1, Act 2, etc.<br />Under “job related skills” – for a web designer – “can function without additional oxygen at 24,000 feet”.<br />One applicant for a nursing position noted that she didn’t like dealing with blood or needles.<br />“Seeking a party-time position with potential for advancement.”<br />
    16. 16. Funniest Resume Mistakes, Bloopers and Blunders Ever<br />“Able to say the ABCs backward in under five seconds.”<br />“Personal interests: donating blood. Fourteen gallons so far.”<br />“Instrumental in ruining entire operation for a Midwest chain store.”<br />Skills: “I have integrity so I will not steal office supplies and take them home.”<br />Objective: “I would like to work for a company that is very lax when it comes to tardiness.”<br />References: “Bill, Tom, Eric. But I don’t know their phone numbers.”<br />Awards: “National record for eating 45 eggs in two minutes.”<br />Education: “I have a bachelorette degree in computers.”<br />
    17. 17. III. SETTING<br />Make sure the humor is appropriate for the space<br />Respect everyone within earshot<br />Humor should enhance, not distract<br />
    18. 18. IV. TIMING<br />Allow time for the imagination to work<br />Never rush a punch line<br />Remember the non-verbal pathway to humor<br />
    19. 19. KEYS TO THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF HUMOR<br />Relationship<br />Rapport<br />Setting<br />Timing<br />Areas of Humor to Avoid<br />
    20. 20. AREAS OF HUMOR TO LIKELY AVOID<br />Politics <br />Sexual<br />EthnicRacial<br />Religious Political<br />Hostile Sick<br />Demeaning to Men Women<br />Graveyard<br />
    21. 21. How Can Humor Be Destructive?<br />
    22. 22. Guidelines for the proper use of humor in counseling<br />There are certain considerations that the counselor must think of before applying humor in the counseling process.  Some of these are:     <br />    <br />Observe the client student's mood to determine if the humor will be appreciated or not (Tichacek, n.d.)<br /> Start slowly (Tichacek, n.d.)<br /> Make it relevant to the student's situation (Tichacek, n.d.)<br />
    23. 23. Guidelines for the proper use of humor in counseling<br />Do not use humor as a put-down  (Gladdin, 1995)<br /> Do not use it too frequently because it becomes boring (Gladdin, 1995)<br /> Use it in an appropriated time (Gladdin, 1995)<br /> Consider the student's sense of humor (Gladdin, 1995)   <br />
    24. 24. HOW TO DEVELOP YOUR PERSONAL SENSE OF HUMOR<br />Look for humor in everything<br />Collect humor<br />Smile more<br />Participate in humorous activities<br />Hang out with funny people – try the humor buddy system<br /><ul><li>Use humor in your correspondence surveys tests
    25. 25. Try out other styles forms of humor
    26. 26. Tell stories on yourself
    27. 27. Have some sort of humor always at the ready</li></li></ul><li>HOW TO DEVELOP YOUR PERSONAL SENSE OF HUMOR<br />Collect Humor<br />Keep a journal file bulletin board library of:<br /> Books Magazines Cartoons Headlines<br /> Jokes Stories Excuses Oxymoron's<br /> Signs Anecdotes Videos Audio Tapes<br />
    28. 28. What Are the Multicultural Implications?<br />
    29. 29. Prayer:God Grant Me the Senility to Forget the People I NeverLiked Anyway, the Good Fortune to Run Into the Ones IDo, and the Eyesight to Tell the Difference.<br />
    30. 30. Take your work seriously<br />--and yourself lightly<br />"From there to here, from here to there, funny things are everywhere."<br />~Dr. Seuss<br />
    31. 31. “Key metaphors help determine what and how we perceive and how we think about our perceptions.”        <br />~M. H. Abrams <br />
    32. 32. “Time is Money”<br />What do you think of when you hear this?<br />What images come to mind?<br />
    33. 33. Metaphorical Thinking<br />Metaphorical Thinking:<br />A direct comparison between two unrelated or indirectly linked things. (a bridge between the new and the familiar)<br />Can be used to improve communications: They can add impact or can help you explain a difficult concept by association with a more familiar one. <br />It can be a good way to build connections because the human mind tends to look for similarities (Making Truth: Metaphor in Science, T.L. Brown, 2003).  <br />For instance, scientists will describe the distribution of mass in the universe as foam-like or that the earth is like a living organism. <br />
    34. 34. As for career counselors, we also have the opportunity to describe career development concepts using metaphors – especially new concepts or ideas<br />such as the relationship between dating and interviewing.<br />Branding – branding products or services<br />The world is your canvas, what picture do you want to paint?<br />What other metaphors do you use? <br />
    35. 35. How do we make this work?<br />They key to instituting this methodology is to get students or clients to awaken their image-thinking part of their brain. <br />Ever wonder why the word “Image” is the root word for “Imagination?”<br />A word is worth a thousand pictures! <br />Create a whole new world of perception, understanding and experience – a clearer meaning<br />Einstein once said “I rarely think in words at all”<br />Use physical drawings or pictures to create visualization<br />Wikipedia or Google Images<br />Don’t just stick with one metaphor…have alternates<br />
    36. 36. Examples<br />Software Development at Microsoft:<br />Microsoft builds its software in conditions of considerable security. The software developers are large groups of skilled professionals who are kept separate from other employees under the authority of a senior project manager. <br />HERE IS WHAT THEY ACTUALLY SAID…<br />Microsoft…(builds its) software like cathedrals, in that a cloistered team of software developers work…much as medieval cathedrals were built by vast armies of craftsmen under the authority of a bishop or high cleric. <br />WHAT NEW IMAGERY WAS CREATED IN THE ACTUAL STATEMENT?<br />Images: Messages:<br /> Cathedral More Physical<br /> Cloister More Visual<br /> Armies More Romantic<br /> Craftsmen Less Bald<br />
    37. 37. Examples<br />Asked to use a metaphor to describe their careers, over 50% used the word “Journey”<br />Words:<br />Career Path<br />Career Exploration<br />Career Ladder or Career Plateau<br />Progress, Climb, Destination, Map, Track, Journey, Path<br />Fit, Match (Assessment-oriented)<br />Phrases:<br />Your career is a journey not a destination<br />I want my career to be on the fast-track<br />Interviewing is like going on a first date…<br />It’s a roller-coaster ride<br />It is like fitting a square peg into a round hole<br />What about descriptors – the more the better. Remember your goal - to create understanding!<br />
    38. 38. Resources<br />Nevo, O. (1996). Uses of humor in career counseling. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, March, 188-196.Bordan, T. & Goldin, E. (1999). The use of humor in counseling: The laughing cure. Journal of Counseling and Development, Fall (77), 405-410.Metaphorical Thinking: Using comparisons to express ideas and solve problems Unlock the Power of Metaphorical Thinking Metaphorical Thinking Through Synectics: Developing deep thinking utilizing abstractions<br />
    39. 39. Resources to Get Your Started<br /> Article from about Workplace humor: Counseling "spoof" from GW Law School:<br /> Silly Job Interview - Monty Python: Metaphors and Their Application to Theory and Counseling Practice A new way of thinking about careers (NCDA)<br />ThinkBlocks Tutorial: Metaphors and Similies<br />
    40. 40. Questions?<br />
    41. 41. Fun Videos/Resources<br /><br /><br />
    42. 42. Ever wonder what an interview at IKEA is like?<br />