Removing Behavioral Barriers

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Removing Behavioral Barriers

  1. 1. REMOVING BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS
  2. 2. SEGMENT TOPICS <ul><li>Applied Behavioral Analysis & Action Planning </li></ul><ul><li>“ ABC” Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Consequences (Positive Versus </li></ul><ul><li>Negative) </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATION MODEL
  4. 4. APPLIED BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS AND ACTION PLANNING
  5. 5. ATTITUDES OR BEHAVIOR? Where should we focus our attention first?
  6. 6. Reasons Sites Focus First on Attitudes <ul><li>Most believe that attitude is important </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude has the power to change behavior </li></ul><ul><li>An attitudinal approach appeals to “common sense: </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, we are tempted to focus on attitudes first </li></ul>
  7. 7. DEFINITIONS Attitude - Deep-seeded feeling or emotion - Internally focused Behavior - An observable action - Externally focused
  8. 8. Reasons Why Behavioral - Based Safety Management is Right <ul><li>Behaviors can be measured and therefore managed </li></ul><ul><li>Changing behavior leads to changing attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids personality conflicts and fault finding </li></ul><ul><li>Embraces employee involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides valuable feedback </li></ul>
  9. 9. BEHAVIORAL-BASED SAFETY MANAGEMENT A process that promotes continuous improvement through the identification,targeting and feedback about critical safety behaviors well in advance of first-aid injuries or illnesses.
  10. 10. Fatal Injuries Serious Injuries - Recordables - Lost Workdays Minor Injuries (First Aid) & Near Miss Incidents BEHAVIORS BEHAVIORS AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF PERFORMANCE Systems and Processes Management Systems, Accountability, Safe Practices, Engineering Controls, Audits/Inspections, etc. Values & Beliefs All accidents can be prevented, HSE Focus in all we do, Safety is a top priority, everyone is responsible for safety
  11. 11. <ul><li>In the practice of behavioral-based safety (BBS), here are four related points: </li></ul><ul><li>. The goal is behavioral change. </li></ul><ul><li>. Some behaviors are harder to change than others. </li></ul><ul><li>. Behavioral change often requires system change. </li></ul><ul><li>. To change employee behavior, expect to change </li></ul><ul><li>management behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Enabling Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Non-enabling Behaviors </li></ul>3-TYPES OF BEHAVIORS
  13. 13. DEFINITION: “Enabled” Behavior <ul><li>An enabled behavior is one over which an employee </li></ul><ul><li>has control. </li></ul><ul><li>An enabled behavior is an instance of “how we do </li></ul><ul><li>things around here”. </li></ul>
  14. 14. DEFINITION: “Difficult” Behavior A difficult behavior is a partially enabled behavior. It is a behavior that can be performed, but only at the cost of going out of one’s way because, for instance, the needed tools or equipment are not located near he work station.
  15. 15. DEFINITION: “Non-enabled” Behavior A non-enabled behavior is one over which an employee has no control. It is a behavior that we are “supposed to do around here” but, in fact, do not have the equipment or the time or the permission to perform.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Upgrading difficult (partially-enabled) behaviors into enabled behaviors requires: </li></ul><ul><li>Applied behavior analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Action planning </li></ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Upgrading non-enabled behaviors into enabled (fully-supported) behaviors requires: </li></ul><ul><li>addressing the management and systems issues that </li></ul><ul><li>prevent employees from performing the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>safely </li></ul><ul><li>changing employee perception about whether the </li></ul><ul><li>organization will allow them to perform the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>without serious negative consequences </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ ABC”ANALYSIS (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence)
  19. 19. “ ABC” Analysis of Unsafe Behavior <ul><li>“ A” - ANTECEDENT - Event that triggers a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>“ B” - BEHAVIOR - Observable action (measurable) </li></ul><ul><li>“ C” - CONSEQUENCE - Outcome or result of behavior </li></ul>
  20. 20. THE THREE KEYS TO USING&quot;CONSEQUENCES&quot; TO CHANGE AN UNSAFE BEHAVIOR: <ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul>
  21. 21. Timing &quot;A consequence must occur soon after a behavior to be most effective .&quot;
  22. 22. Consistency &quot;A consequence that is certain to follow a behavior is seen as a strong deterrent to unwanted behavior.&quot;
  23. 23. Significance &quot;The significance of a positive response has been shown to be more powerful in changing behavior than a negative exchange.&quot;
  24. 24. SOON - CERTAIN - POSITIVE
  25. 25. “ ABC” Analysis Example A B C “ ABC ANALYSIS” S/L C/U +/- - Failure to Wear Safety Glasses
  26. 26. “ ABC” Analysis Example A B C “ ABC ANALYSIS” S/L C/U +/- <ul><li>- Uncomfortable - Failure to Wear </li></ul><ul><li> Safety Glasses </li></ul><ul><li>- Fog-up </li></ul><ul><li>No Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>- Won’t be Injured </li></ul><ul><li>- Unavailable </li></ul><ul><li>- Peer Pressure </li></ul>
  27. 27. “ ABC” Analysis Example A B C “ ABC ANALYSIS” S/L C/U +/- - Uncomfortable - Failure to Wear - Comfortable Safety Glasses - Fog-up - See Better - No Discipline - Discipline - Won’t be Injured - Maybe Injury - Unavailable - Saves Time - Peer Pressure - Peer Approval
  28. 28. “ ABC” Analysis Example A B C “ ABC ANALYSIS” S/L C/U +/- - Uncomfortable - Failure to Wear - Comfortable S C + Safety Glasses - Fog-up - See Better S C + - No Discipline - Discipline L U - - Won’t be Injured - Maybe Injury L U - - Unavailable - Saves Time S C + - Peer Pressure - Peer Approval S C +
  29. 29. THE SAFETY DILEMMA Many safe behaviors are punishing - Uncomfortable - Restricts motion - Inconvenient - Unavailable - Difficult Many unsafe behaviors are rewarding - Faster - Comfortable - Freedom of movement - Saves time
  30. 30. Behavioral Action Plan - Wearing Safety Glasses Action Steps Date/Responsibility 1. Provide multiple styles of safety glasses and arrange for proper fitting. (Review recommendations with assembly employees for their input. 2. Choose an anti-fogging solution for Assembly Department employees. 3/94 Assembly Dept. Manager & Assembly START Team Member. 5/94 Assembly START Team
  31. 31. Action Steps Date/Responsibility 3. Identify and recommend work area modifications that will impact the fogging issue. 4. Retrain employees on the need to wear safety glasses. 5. Evaluate stores and area supply cabinets to ensure that there is an adequate supply of safety glasses. 10/94 - Engineering Department and Assembly START Team Reps 2/94 - START Team 2/94 - START Team Reps. 6. Increase safety audits in the Assembly Department and focus on safety glasses. 7. Review status report of audits and action plan with all employees. Immediately/all trained auditors Monthly/START Team Representative and Supervisors
  32. 32. INCIDENT/INJURY REPORTS Ratio of Total Injury Rate OSHA Injury Rate Ratio
  33. 33. &quot;ABC&quot; ANALYSIS A B C ABC ANALYSIS S/L C/U +/- 1 . Does not see the 1. Nothing happens S C + need to report no disciplinary action for not reporting 2. Fear of discipline 2. Group maintains S C + safety record 3. Takes too much time 3. Injury does not S C - get treated 4. Work group might lose 4. No paperwork S C + safety prize hassle 5. Anticipates peer criticism 5. Avoids confrontation S C + if he reports with supervisor 6. Cannot leave job site 6. Injury gets worse L U _ 7. Doesn't like incident 7. Stays eligible for S C + investigation forms safety prize 8. Saves time Failure to report incidents
  34. 34. “ ABC” ANALYSIS WORKSHOP
  35. 35. POSITIVE VS. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
  36. 36. SEGMENT TOPICS <ul><li>Training vs. Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Why positive reinforcement is the best way </li></ul><ul><li>to increase performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons that discipline is detrimental to the </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;START&quot; process </li></ul><ul><li>Proper application of discipline </li></ul>
  37. 37. TRAINING OR MOTIVATION? <ul><li>Does the person sometimes do as needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the safe way to behave common knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>If you asked the person to behave in the safe </li></ul><ul><li>way, would they probably know what to do? </li></ul><ul><li>If the person were highly motivated to behave </li></ul><ul><li>safely, would they be able to do it? </li></ul>
  38. 38. FOUR (4) BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement (R+) </li></ul><ul><li>- Get something you want. </li></ul><ul><li>- Increases behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement (R-) </li></ul><ul><li>- Escape or avoid something </li></ul><ul><li>you don't want. </li></ul><ul><li>- Increases behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment (P+) </li></ul><ul><li>- Get something you </li></ul><ul><li>don't want. </li></ul><ul><li>- Decreases behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction (P-) </li></ul><ul><li>- Don't get what you </li></ul><ul><li>want. </li></ul><ul><li>- Decreases behavior. </li></ul>
  39. 39. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT <ul><li>Increases behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Must occur soon-certain-positive to be </li></ul><ul><li>most effective </li></ul><ul><li>Causes voluntary (extra effort) by the </li></ul><ul><li>performer </li></ul><ul><li>Only way to maximize performance </li></ul>
  40. 40. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT <ul><li>Increases behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Causes minimum effort by the performer </li></ul><ul><li>(compliance) </li></ul><ul><li>Gets only enough to escape or avoid punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Never maximizes performance </li></ul><ul><li>Is effective only when followed by positive </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement </li></ul>
  41. 41. POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT + R - R Time Reinforcement
  42. 42. PUNISHMENT (DISCIPLINE) <ul><li>Weakens on stops behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Is difficult to maintain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- must be severe or highly probable to be effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- LU- vs. SC- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never solves a problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- may increase undesirable behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has many negative side effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- teaches wrong lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- damages relationships and involvement (teamwork) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- it only gets compliance (minimum effort) not voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(extra effort) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to correct performance </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting requires positive reinforcement to sustain </li></ul>
  43. 43. PROPER USE OF DISCIPLINE <ul><li>Repeat offenders </li></ul><ul><li>Violations with serious consequences </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;won't do&quot; personality </li></ul>
  44. 44. EXTINCTION <ul><li>Decreases behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when nothing happens </li></ul><ul><li>May weaken desirable or undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Is most effective when alternative </li></ul><ul><li>behaviors are positively reinforced </li></ul>
  45. 45. BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES WORKSHOP
  46. 46. PATH FORWARD

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