Welcome The more you contribute, the more you will get out of this training, so please don’t hold back . . . Participate and have fun! Goals Given the information and exercises in this workshop, you will be able to: 1. Explain to others why JHAs are important 2. Recognize how the JHA may be a valuable training tool. 3. Know the five-step process and complete a JHA Let’s get to work! Welcome to the Basic Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Workshop 103. This workshop is designed to include you in the learning experience. It targets the workers, supervisors, and managers responsible for job safety performance, and introduces a new approach which brings the JHA to the floor as a valuable training tool that may be integrated into daily operations. Please Note: This material, or any other material used to inform employers of safety and health issues or of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA. This workbook is intended for classroom use only
Introductions ! What’s a Job? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ What’s a Hazard? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ What is Analysis? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Form Teams Elect a team leader _____________________________ Select a spokesperson ___________________________ Everyone is a recorder __________________________ Defining Job Hazard Analysis Why is a JHA more effective than a walk-around inspection in reducing accidents in the workplace? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________
Effective JHAs help the employer recognize and control hazards and exposures in the workplace. Workers in their first year with their employer account for more than 50% of the accepted disabling claims. Why Job Hazard Analysis Is Important Why? ( list three possible explanations ) 1. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ How might the employee’s perception of a “hazard” differ from that of the employer? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ What is an “exposure”? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Determining The Degree Of Risk
They are also required to express their finding as a “probability rating”. The probability rating is: Low - If the factors considered indicate it would be unlikely that an accident could occur; Medium - If the factors considered indicate it would be likely that an accident could occur; or High - If the factors considered indicate it would be very likely that an accident could occur. JHAs help us to understand the “probability” of there being an accident and what the “severity” of the injury or illness might be if one does take place. Probability is defined as: the chance that a given event will occur. Oregon OSHA requires Compliance Officers to determine the probability based on the following: * The number of employees exposed; * The frequency and duration of exposure; * The proximity of employees to the danger zone; * Factors which require work under stress ; * Lack of proper training and supervision or improper workplace design; or * Other factors which may significantly influence the degree of probability of an accident occurring. Severity is defined as: the degree of injury or illness which is reasonably predictable. Compliance Officers are also required to determine the severity and express it based on the following schedule: Other Than Serious - Conditions that could cause injury or illness to employees but would not include serious physical harm. (first aid for example) Serious Physical Harm - (example: all recordable injuries and illnesses) Death
Why Job Hazard Analysis Is Important Probability and Severity factors can be evaluated based on a simple “decision making matrix” (example 1 below). A matrix lets you chart a value for two factors such as probability and severity and rate the combined relationship. For example, let’s assume that you have found a hazardous condition and 25 employees are exposed to it six times each day. You may feel that the probability is “ medium ” based on these factors. Now you can chart the probability on a matrix similar to the one below (example 2). Note that a line has been drawn through the medium row. Now, using the same hazard, let’s assume that the “Severity” factor is determined to be “ Serious Physical Harm ” because the seriousness will most likely result in a recordable injury. Example 3 of the same matrix (below) shows the “Serious Physical Harm” column with a line through it. Note that the two lines intersect at the “ 4 ”. The combined rating is “ 4 ”. Picking Apples: There are 20 workers picking apples. The orchard is made up of 400 trees. The workers are paid based on how much each one of them picks. Well-maintained equipment is provided but there is no training. The owner or the foreman will be in the general area most of the time. Now it’s your turn. ( read the following information and score the matrix based on your understanding of the task, your experience, and your intuition ) Severity Probability Other Than Serious Serious Physical Harm Death Low Medium High 1 2 3 2 4 6 3 6 9 Example 3 4
The first step is to observe the employee performing the job. It’s important that the safety culture support the JHA process by emphasizing the “fix the system” nature of the process. The observer and employee should, of course, approach this step and the entire JHA process as a team. The Steps In The JHA Process Step One - Watch the work being done What are some effective methods to watch the work being done? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Why is it important to involve the employee? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Why is a “fix-the-system” culture so important to the JHA process? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ The JHA doesn’t have to be rocket science.
Instructions: First we need to understand the job that we are to analyze. Your instructor will explain the following options: Each group analyzes a job all of the members are familiar with at work. The class analyzes the job the instructor demonstrates. Each group analyzes one of the five jobs below. The Steps In The JHA Process Group Exercise: Analyze These Jobs! Painting A Room: * An employer decides to have two of his own employees paint five rooms of a building instead of hiring a contractor from the outside. * He brings in a compressor and spray gun from his home. * He gives the workers $300.00 to go down to the local paint store and buy paint and anything else they may need to complete the job. * The job should be completed in four days. Packing & Stacking Cartons: * Each of five teams of workers, two workers per team, pack 30 items in a carton. * The weight of each item is one pound. * One of the team members stands ready while the other fills the carton. This takes two minutes. * Once the carton is full, it must be taped shut, carried 20 feet, and then stacked on a pallet that holds a total of 45 cartons. * As the first team member leaves the line to carry the carton to the stacking area, the second team member begins to fill the next carton. * Once the pallet is full, a forklift will take it to the warehouse and a new empty pallet will be placed into position. * This process is repeated all day long with breaks given at mid-morning, lunch, and mid-afternoon for each team.
The Steps In The JHA Process Group Exercise: Analyze These Jobs! (continued) Backing A Dump Truck: * A piece of land is being prepared for new construction. * There are 12 workers in the area * A backhoe, frontloader, bulldozer, and dump truck are all in operation at the site at the same time. * The dump truck is filled about once an hour and must be taken to a landfill, emptied, and then returned for another load. Work Processing: * A worker is hired to do data entry eight hours a day. * Two short breaks are provided every hour along with the standard morning, lunch, and afternoon breaks. * The chair is adjustable. The keyboard is mounted on a platform in front of the monitor. The CPU is located on the floor under the desk. * An old table saw with the guards missing is in the maintenance shop area. * Anyone is allowed to use it when needed. * There are five maintenance people and they all use this saw several times a day. * Safety glasses are required but not enforced. * The worker is cutting 8’ x 2” x 6” boards that are stacked vertically along a nearby wall in the same room. Cutting Wood On A Table Saw:
This step is crucial to the JHA process. Analysis means “breaking down the whole into parts to determine how each part impacts the whole.” The Steps In The JHA Process Step Two - Break the job down into steps Let’s take a look at the “Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet” and see how it helps us to organize this process. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. A JHA could have as few as 3 steps and as many as 15 steps. If there are fewer than 3 steps then a JHA may not be needed. If there are more than 15 steps then more than one JHA may be required. Note:
Fill in the top section and then break the assigned job down into steps. Use the bottom of this page and continue on to the next page if necessary. Group Exercise
Group Exercise (continued) This exercise will not require more than 10 steps. The worksheet for Steps 11 through 15 has been removed. A master of the removed page is included in the “Masters for Copy” section of this workbook. Note:
One of the primary purposes of the JHA is to make the job safer. The information gathered in this step will be valuable in helping to eliminate and/or reduce hazards associated with the job, and improve the system weaknesses that produced them. The Steps In The JHA Process Step Three - Describe the hazards in each step of the task. Identifying types of hazards * Acceleration : When we speed up or slow down too quickly * Toxic : Toxic to skin and internal organs. * Radiation : Non-ionizing - burns, Ionizing - destroys tissue. * Ergonomics : Eight risk factors 1. High Frequency : There are a lot of repetitions of the same movement in a task. 2. High Duration : The employee must repeat the same movement over an extended period of time. 3. High Force : The employee must exert force to complete the task. This may include lifting, pushing, pulling, reaching, etc. 4. Posture : Stress from over-extending body parts, or improper body position is part of the task. 5. Point of Operation : The location of the worker or tool in relation to the material or product, increases the stress impact of other risk factors 6. Mechanical Pressure : Hand-held tools have hard, sharp edges or short handles. 7. Vibration : Impact tools, power tools, bench mounted buffers and grinders (for example) produce excessive vibration. 8. Environmental Exposure : The employee works in humid, poorly lit, noisy, or temperature extreme environments. * Pressure : Increased pressure in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. * Mechanical : Pinch points, sharp points and edges, weight, rotating parts, stability, ejected parts and materials, impact. * Flammability/Fire : In order for combustion to take place, the fuel and oxidizer must be present in gaseous form. * Explosives : Explosions result in large amounts of gas, heat, noise, light and over-pressure. * Electrical Contact : Inadequate insulation, broken electrical lines or equipment, lightning strike, static discharge etc. * Chemical Reactions : Chemical reactions can be violent, can cause explosions, dispersion of materials and emission of heat. * Biological : Primarily airborne and bloodborne viruses. * Violence In The Workplace: Any violent act that occurs in the workplace and creates a hostile work environment that affects employees’ physical or psychological well-being.
The Steps In The JHA Process Accident Types Struck-by: A person is forcefully struck by an object. The force of contact is provided by the object. Struck-against: A person forcefully strikes an object. The person provides the force or energy. Contact-by: Contact by a substance or material that, by its very nature, is harmful and causes injury. Contact-with: A person comes in contact with a harmful substance or material. The person initiates the contact. Caught-on: A person or part of his/her clothing or equipment is caught on an object that is either moving or stationary. This may cause the person to lose his/her balance and fall, be pulled into a machine, or suffer some other harm. Caught-in: A person or part of him/her is trapped, or otherwise caught in an opening or enclosure. Caught-between: A person is crushed, pinched or otherwise caught between a moving and a stationary object, or between two moving objects. Fall-to-surface: A person slips or trips and falls to the surface he/she is standing or walking on. Fall-to-below: A person slips or trips and falls to a level below the one he/she was walking or standing on. Over-exertion: A person over-extends or strains himself/herself while performing work. Bodily reaction: Caused solely from stress imposed by free movement of the body or assumption of a strained or unnatural body position. A leading source of injury. Over-exposure: Over a period of time, a person is exposed to harmful energy (noise, heat), lack of energy (cold), or substances (toxic chemicals/atmospheres). Using the worksheet(s) from “Step 2” fill in the hazards that are associated with each step of the job. If the step is free of hazards then go on to the next step of the job. Group Exercise
It is now time to identify the desired control measures for each hazard. These controls are to be entered in the section titled “Control Measures” on the worksheet. The Steps In The JHA Process Step Four - Control Measures <ul><li>The Hierarchy of Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering controls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering controls consist of substitution, isolation, ventilation, and equipment modification. These controls focus on the source of the hazard, unlike other types of controls that generally focus on the employee exposed to the hazard. The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management controls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any procedure which significantly limits daily exposure by control or manipulation of the work schedule or manner in which work is performed is considered a means of management control. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management controls may result in a reduction of exposure through such methods as changing work habits, improving sanitation and hygiene practices, or making other changes in the way the employee performs the job. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When exposure to hazards cannot be engineered completely out of normal operations or maintenance work, and when safe work practices and administrative controls cannot provide sufficient additional protection from exposure, personal protective clothing and/or equipment may be required. </li></ul></ul></ul>Using the worksheet(s) from “Step 2” fill in the control measure for each hazard that was identified in the last exercise. Group Exercise
The “Safe Operating Procedure” is the last page of the JHA. It is a narrative or written summary of the JHA worksheets. Note that there are three sections: The Steps In The JHA Process Step Five - Safe Operating Procedure Using the “Safe Operating Procedure” form on the next page, and referring to the worksheet(s) from “Step 2”, write a narrative or written summary of the JHA. Group Exercise
The “Performance Measurement Summary” gives the supervisor one more communication tool. This summary would be used in conjunction with the JHA worksheet and the Safe Operating Procedure. It helps ensure that the worker and the supervisor are in agreement regarding what is expected of the worker and what will happen as the result of a performance evaluation. The following page is an example of a complete Performance Measurement Summary. Performance Measurement Summary Optional - Performance Measurement Summary
Performance Measurement Summary 123 Box Weight Checker The Box Weight Checker picks up a box from the end of the conveyer, places it on the weight checker, records the weight on the weight ticket, and then pushes the box onto the take away conveyer. Sprains and strains of the arms, shoulders, and lower back could be the result of improper lifting, carrying, and placing of the boxes. 1. Approach each box straight on. 2. Remove it from the conveyer without bending at the back (use legs). 3. Turn to weight checker (use feet to turn, do not twist). 4. Place box on weight checker. 5. Mark box weight. 6. Gently push the box onto the take away conveyer. In addition to the Hazard Control Procedures the worker will be expected to do the following: 1. Stay up with the flow of boxes (5 to 8 boxes per minute). 2. Accurately record the weight of each box (zero tolerance for errors). Note: The weight checker is calibrated daily. The worker’s lifting practices will be observed and evaluated daily with appropriate feedback. The accuracy of the box weight check will be monitored on an hourly basis with appropriate feedback. The worker will be on probation for five working days. If it is determined that the worker is able to perform as described above, he/she will have completed the probation successfully. In the event that the worker is unable to perform as described, the worker will be discharged. John E. Onthespot 8/7/01 Rolland A Long 8/7/01
JHA Number: _______________ Performance Measurement Summary: The job description: __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Operational Guidelines: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Hazards Identified: ________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Hazards Control Procedures: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Supervisor’s Expectation: ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Method(s) Of Performance Measurement: ___________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The Consequences (positive & negative): ______________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Supervisor Signature: ________________________________________ Date: _________________ Employee Signature: _________________________________________ Date: _________________
OR-OSHA 103 0102-02 Conducting An Effective Job Hazard Analysis An introduction to the “Five Step Process” of Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) Presented by The Public Education Section Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA)
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