• Palm oil and palm is an important vegetable oil which is used in plenty of foods and other products in the market.
Where does it come from? Palm Oil PlantaCon/Orchard
• The main producers of palm oil are Indonesia and Malaysia. • Indonesia is the third largest producer of green house gases (behind the US and China).
Fruit Bundles The liquid from these thousands of fruits make the precious oil
The Trees • Oil palms can grow up to 65 feet tall and their broad leaves can stretch up to 17 feet long. • They bear clusters of fruit all year long, with each fruit bundle at its peak weighing around 110 pounds each.
ExtracCon • HarvesCng: The fresh fruit bunches (FFB) of right maturity are harvested and transported. • SterilizaCon: The FFB are sterilized by the use of steam pressure • Stripping: The fruit is separated individually • DigesCon: The fruits are compressed into a thick pulp. • Pressing: The mixture is pressed under heavy machinery to squeeze out the juices/oil • ClariﬁcaCon: The water mixture grouped into two parts; oil and water. • PuriﬁcaCon: High speed centrifuge is used to remove the ﬁnal solid impuriCes from the oil. • Vacuum Drying: Moisture content of the oil ﬁnally removed by vacuum drying. Thus a high quality palm oil is produced. • Nut Recovery: Palm seeds are separated from the press cake in a seed recovery unit.
Palm oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oils to produce because of the very high raCo of land to oil.
Palm vs. Other Vegetable Oils • Vegetable oil producCon around the world totals over 159 million tons per year, of which over 52 million tons is palm oil. Along with soy oil, palm oil makes up 60% of world producCon. • Oil palms are highly eﬃcient oil producers, with each fruit containing about 50% oil. As a result they require ten Cmes less land than other oil‐producing crops.
Other Advantages • Natural vitamin E deposits (prevent Low‐density lipoprotein, which can cause cardiovascular diseases). • There is lidle polyunsaturated fat, a cause of heart disease. • Over ten types of beta carotenes (more then carrots or tomatoes), which consist of carotenoids that make the orange pigmentaCon and serve as anCoxidants. • There is also vitamin A which helps promote good vision.
Uniqueness to food • Used as a preservaCve • Sweetener • High concentrated of saturated fat so it does not need to be hydrogenated (unsaturated to saturated). This causes trans fat to be produced in the process.
Requirements • Growing these plantaCons requires a lot of water, ferClizer and pesCcides. • However the most important part about growing palm oil trees is a tropical climate. • Most especially, there must be space to plant. This causes a huge problem……….
• Because the demand for palm oil is so great residents of Indonesia are clear cuhng vast areas of rain forest to plant the palm crops so that they can obtain a huge proﬁt. The problem is that palm crops are far less eﬃcient at reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere than the endemic species.
Tropical Rainforest • Near the equator • Humid climate with 100 inches of rain per year • Strong sunlight year round • 10 species of trees in one hectare (2.47 acres) • Trees grow above 100 feet tall • Huge amount of diversity, the most out of any other ecosystem
• AdaptaCons – most species are specialists and have established their own niche • Animals depend on plants and vice versa • Resource parCConing • From the ground to the canopy, Birds of Paradise divide territory by height
Biodiversity loss Lidle interference with the complex Structure of the rainforest can cause Massive loss that may be very diﬃcult To near impossible to regain. The divide between ecosystems
Processes Taken to Re‐establish Rainforest • Dr. Willie Smits has created a innovaCve system to bring back deforested land • Speeding up secondary succession • Gehng the civilians to parCcipate and have well paid jobs
Endangered Species Sumatran Tiger Komodo Island Monitor Agile Gibbon
Orangutans • “Old man of the forest” in Indonesian There are only two species len. The Sumatran Orangutan and the Bornean Orangutan.
The Mammal’s History • Orangutans need plenty of space • Their main food source is • Only a few thousand len • Largest arboreal animal • Very intelligent = use of tools
Diet • Fruit accounts for around 80% percent of their diet • Scavengers • They can last a long Cme without food Ficus Fruit Orangutan favorite
What foods have Palm Oil 1 in 10 foods have palm oil
Non‐edible products • Palm oil is used in most cosmeCcs as a binding agent. And in other bathroom products like soaps and shampoos. • Beauty products such as lipsCck also use palm oil
AlternaCves • Soy oil • Codonseed oil • Peanut oil • Rapeseed oil • Sunﬂower seed oil • For cooking use olive oil and canola oil
How You can help • Read all labels, to see the ingredients (not all products have it listed, so do some research before purchasing).• Do not buy any of these products• Tell your friends and family about this drastic problem