HELE / TLEelectronics

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HELE / TLEelectronics

  1. 1. LESSON 3 - Schematic Symbols of Electronics Components COMPONENT/PART SYMBOL ACTUAL 1. RESISTOR a. fixed resistor b. potentiometer or volume control c. variable resistor 2. CAPACITOR a. fixed capacitor (non-polarized) b. electrolyte filter capacitor (polarized)
  2. 2. COMPONENT/PART SYMBOL ACTUAL c. variable capacitor (gang tuning) d. trimmer 3. SEMICONDUCTOR a. rectifier diodes b. light emitting diode (LED) c. Zener diode d. bridge diode 4. LOUDSPEAKER
  3. 3. COMPONENT/PART SYMBOL ACTUAL 5. TRANSISTORS a. PNP transistor b. NPN transistor 6. PLUG 7. WIRINGS a. wires connected b. wires not connected
  4. 4. COMPONENT/PART SYMBOL ACTUAL 8. GROUND 9. SWITCHES a. single pole single throw (SPST) b. double pole double throw (DPDT) c. push button normally closed d. push button normally open e. rotary or selector slide switch
  5. 5. COMPONENT/PART SYMBOL ACTUAL f. slide switch 10. AC TRANSFORMERS a. step-down b. variable output voltage c. inductor d. coil 11. FUSE 12. PILOT LIGHT OR LAMP
  6. 6. LESSON 4 – Diagram used in Electronics
  7. 7. Block or circuit Diagram - shows only the complete connections and interconnections of the components as well as the flow or process in a circuit.
  8. 8. Pictorial or Schematic Diagram - shows a more detailed description of the components. It helps identify exactly where the components are installed for easy troubleshooting.
  9. 9. RESISTOR COLOR CODING - color coded resistance value - 4 color bands - 1st 3 color is the resistance - 4th color represent the tolerance LESSON 5 – Color Coding of Resistors and Capacitors
  10. 10. 1st significant digit 2nd significant digit Represents the number of zeroes (MULTIPLIER) TOLERANCE BLACK 0 0 0 - BROWN 1 1 1 + 1% RED 2 2 2 + 2% ORANGE 3 3 3 + 3% YELLOW 4 4 4 + 4% GREEN 5 5 5 - BLUE 6 6 6 - VIOLET 7 7 7 - GRAY 8 8 8 - WHITE 9 9 9 - GOLD - - Decimal point is after the first significant digit + 5 % SILVER - - Decimal point is before the first significant digit + 10 % NONE + 20%
  11. 11. Capacitor - can store electrical charges or voltages - the amount of electrical charge that can store --- “Farad” - FARAD (F) - very large unit of capacitance - can also be expressed in “millifarad”(mF), “microfarad” (mF), “nanofarad” (nF), and “picafarad” (pF)
  12. 12. PREFIX SYMBOL SCIENTIFIC NOTATION MATHEMATICAL EQUIVALENT Milli m 103 0.0001 Micro µ or u 106 0.000 001 Nano Ωn 109 0.000 000 001 Pico p 10-12 0.000.000 000 001
  13. 13. COLOR MULTIPLIER VOLTAGE Black 1 microFarad 10 Brown 10 microFarad Red 100 microFarad Yellow 6.3 Green 16 Blue 20 Violet Gray 0.01 microFarad 25 White .1 microFarad 3 Pink 35
  14. 14. Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (V.O.M) - is a device with 3 different testers contained in one case. - V.O.M is used for measuring resistance, measuring AC voltage, measuring DC voltage, and for measuring current LESSON 6 – Uses of the Multi-tester or Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (V.O.M)
  15. 15. LEGEND: 1. Indicator zero corrector 2. Range selector switch knob 3. Measuring terminal + 4. Measuring terminal – COM (common) 5. OUTPUT (series condenser) 6. 0Ω adjusting knob 7. Panel 8. Indicator pointer 10. Rear case 10 8 1 5 6 7 2 4 3
  16. 16. Ohmmeter - this is the topmost scale of the multimeter which is used to measure resistance and to test component -- such as diodes, capacitors, transistors and coils TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS TO BE DONE BEFORE TAKING RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS 1. Select a proper range or multiplier in the function selection. 2. Adjust the needle or the points to zero reading. This is done by shorting together the two test prods and turning the ohms adjustment knob slowly until the needle points
  17. 17. Voltmeter - a device used to measure AC and DC voltages - has 3 sets of scales : scale is 0-10 V if the voltage is less than 10 volts : 0-50 V when expected voltage is 50 : 0-250 V if the expected voltage is 250
  18. 18. Milliammeter - used to measure small current flowing in a given circuit component Measuring Procedure a. Adjustment of meter to zero position - turn the zero position adjuster b. Range Selection - select proper range for the item to be measured - set first the range selector knob to the highest level to avoid damage on the meter
  19. 19. A. Measuring DCV 1. set the range selector knob on appropriate DCV range 2. Apply the black test pin to the minus potential of measurement circuit and the red test pin to the plus potential 3. Read the movement of the pointer by V and A scale B. Measuring ACV 1. turn the range selector knob to an appropriate ACV range 2. Apply the test leads to measured circuit 3. Read the movement of pointer V and A scale
  20. 20. C. Measuring DCA 1. Turn the range selector knob to an appropriate DCA range 2. Take out measured circuit and apply the black test pin to the minus potential of measured circuit and red test pin to the plus potential. Observe circuit polarity. 3. Read the movement of the pointer by V and A scale. Note: Connect the meter in series with a load D. Measuring Resistance 1. Turn the range selector knob to an appropriate resistance range 2. Short the red and black test pins and turn the zero ohm adjuster so that the pointer may align exactly to zero ohm. Note: If the pointer fails to swing up to 0 even when the 0 adjuster is turned full clockwise, the battery maybe defective
  21. 21. A simple electronic project will be easy to construct if the following hints are followed:  working area should be well –ventilated and away from children  Read thoroughly the entire construction procedure first and always refer to your diagram  Observe safety rules and practices in doing your work  Buy only original or high quality components LESSON 7 – Constructing a Simple Electronic Project
  22. 22. Some choices you can select from in constructing a simple electronic project:  HALF WAVE POWER SUPPLY
  23. 23.  FULL WAVE POWER SUPPLY
  24. 24.  FULL WAVE BRIDGE TYPE POWER SUPPLY
  25. 25.  DC OUTPUT POWER SUPPLY

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