I will discuss the following:
Arguments on Rizal
Defense of Rizal
Sentenced to Rizal
November 20, 1896
Rizal appeared to Colonel Francisco
Rizal was questioned by Col. Olive but he
was not permitted to confront witnesses
who testified against him.
Two kinds of evidence presented against
1. A letter from Antonio Luna to Mariano
Ponce dated Oct. 16, 1888, Madrid.
2. A letter of Rizal to his family dated Aug.
20, 1890, Madrid.
3. A letter from M.H. Del Pilar to Deodato
Arellano dated Jan 7, 1889, Madrid
4. A poem entitled “Kundiman” allegedly
written by Rizal.
Tunay ngayong umid yaring dila't puso
Sinta'y umiilag, tuwa'y lumalayo,
Bayan palibhasa'y lupig at sumuko
Sa kapabayaan ng nagturong puno.
Datapuwa't muling sisikat ang araw,
Pilit maliligtas ang inaping bayan,
Magbabalik mandin at muling iiral
Ang ngalang Tagalog sa sandaigdigan.
Ibubuhos namin ang dugo't babaha
Matubos nga lamang ang sa amang lupa
Habang di ninilang panahong tadhana,
Sinta'y tatahimik, iidlip ang nasa.
5. A letter of Carlos Oliver to an
unidentified person, Sept. 18, 1891.
6. A Masonic document dated Feb.
7. A letter signed “Dimasalang” to Ten Luz
(Juan Zulueta) dated May 24, 1892, H.K.
8. A letter signed Dimasalang to
unidentified committee dated June
1, 1892, Hong Kong.
9. An anonymous and undated letter to
the Editor of the Hong Kong Telegraph.
10. A letter of Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated
Sept. 3, 1892.
11. A letter of Rizal Segundo, dated Sept.
12. A letter to M.H. Del Pilar to Juan A. Tenluz
13. A transcript of the speech of Pinkian
(Emilio Jacinto) in a meeting of the
Katipunan on July 23, 1893.
14. Transcript of a speech Tik-Tol (Jose
Turiano Santiago) during the same
15. A poem by Laon Laan (Rizal) entitled A
1. Martin Constantino
2. Aguedo del Rosario
3. Jose Reyes
4. Moises Salvador
5. Jose Dizon
6. Pio Valenzuela
7. Ambrosio Savador
8. Francisco Quison
9. Timoteo Paez
10. Deodato Arellano
11. Pedro Serrano Laktaw
12. Antonio Salazar
13. Domingo Franco
Rizal must be immediately sent to trial
He must be held in prison under necessary
His properties must be issued with order of
attachment, and as indemnity, Rizal had
to pay one million pesos
Instead of a civilian lawyer, only an army
officer is allowed to defend Rizal.
Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade
1st Lieutenant of the Artillery, brother of Jose
Taviel de Andrade, the bodyguard of Rizal.
December 11, 1896
Charged with the crime of rebellion, and the
formation of illegal associations.
Rizal replied that:
He does not question the jurisdiction of the court
He has nothing to amend except that during his
exile in Dapitan in 1892, he had not dealt in
He has nothing to admit on the charges against
He had nothing to admit on the declarations of
the witnesses, he had not met nor knew, against
While in Detention
Rizal released a manifesto that he
denounces the revolution and
condemned Katipunan for using his name
without his permission.
December 26, 1896
@Hall of Banners of the Cuartel de España
He was accused of 3 crimes:
rebellion, sedition, illegal associations.
Penalty: Life imprisonment-death for
rebellion and sedition, correctional
imprisonment and a fine of 325 to 3250
pesetas for illegal association.
Defense of Rizal
As testified by Pio Valenzuela, Rizal was against rebellion
He had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan
comprising revolutionary elements
Without his knowledge, his name was used by the
Katipunan; if he really was guilty, he could have escaped
while he was in Singapore
If he was guilty, he should have left the country while in
exile; he shouldn't have built a home, bought a parcel of
land or established a hospital in Dapitan.
If he was really the leader of the revolution, the
revolutionists should have consulted him.
He did not deny that he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga
Filipina, but to make things clear, the organization was a
civic association, not a revolutionary society.
Defense of Rizal
After the first meeting of La Liga, the association banished because
of his exile in Dapitan, thus, did not last long.
If the La Liga was reorganized nine months later, he had no idea
If the La Liga had a revolutionary purpose, then Katipunan should
not have been organized.
If the Spanish authorities found his letters having bitter atmosphere,
it was because in 1890 his family was being persecuted resulting to
their dispossession of properties and deportation of all his brothers-
He lived an exemplary life in Dapitan – the politico-military
commanders and missionary priests in the province could attest to
If according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo
Ongjunco's house had inspired the revolution, then he want to
confront these persons. If he really was for the revolution, then why
did the Katipunan sent an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitan? It
is so because all his friends were aware that he never advocated
December 28, 1896
Polavieja approved the decision of the
court-martial and ordered Rizal to be shot
at 7:00 o’clock in the morning of
December 30 at Bagumbayan Field