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Norway talk #1 dual level theory ppt


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A talk delivered at the University of Oslo on a dual level theory of new literacies. For the published work, see:

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Norway talk #1 dual level theory ppt

  1. 1. Literacy as Deixis in An Online World: Epistemological IssuesDonald J. Leu Neag Endowed Chair in Literacy and Technology University of Connecticut New Literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies
  2. 2. Thank you for the honor and the opportunity to share a few thoughts and learn more about your work!
  3. 3. ` The New Literacies Research Team
  5. 5. Ray and Carole Neag The Carnegie Corporation of New York IES, U.S. Department of Education The National Science Foundation North Central Educational Research Lab PBS The Annenberg Foundation William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Australian Council of Educational Research OECD Schools and teachers around the world. Important Funding and Support From:
  6. 6. What Have I Learned? “The more I know, the less I understand.” Don Henley, The Eagles
  7. 7.  Rapid, Disruptive Changes To Reading and Literacy Are Happening All Around Us.  Never before has a generation lived through such a period of profound change to literacy, learning, and life We Live In Epochal Times
  8. 8. Print Newspapers are Disappearing
  9. 9. The Internet is a Disruptive Force For Many Things, But Especially Reading & Literacy. Literacy is, of course, multiple but it is now also deictic.
  10. 10. Deixis • A term from early stages in the development of sociolinguistics • A class of words whose meanings change when the context changes. (Filmore, 1971)
  11. 11. With the Internet, Reading & Literacy Have Become Deictic.  Deixis: Words whose meanings rapidly change based on the extralinguistic context. A form of exophora. here there Itodayyesterday she literacy writingreading
  12. 12. Yesterday
  13. 13. Today
  14. 14. New Technologies for Learning Require New Literacies: “Literacy is not just new today; it becomes new every day of our lives.”
  15. 15. The Problem A conundrum: How can we possibly develop adequate theory when the object that we seek to study is itself ephemeral, continuously being redefined by a changing context?
  16. 16. Positioning A Solution Within Our Social Context The nature of work and reading has changed. The rapid appearance of the Internet in both our professional and personal lives. Public policy initiatives by nations that integrate the Internet into education.
  17. 17. The Nature of Work Has Changed CEO Upper Level Management Upper Middle Level Management Middle Level Management Line Supervisors Workers The “General Motors” Model of Economic Management Wasted intellectual capital
  18. 18. In a Flattened World: Opportunities Expand but Competition Increases Team Team TeamTeam Team These teams take full advantage of their intellectual capital to the extent their education system has prepared them for this. Greater Intellectual Capital Use = Greater Productivity Online Research and Comprehension 1. Define problems 2. Locate information 3. Evaluate information 4. Synthesize and solve problems 5. Communicate solutions
  19. 19. The Internet Is Used Extensively in the Workplace To Conduct Research, Solve Problems, and Learn Team Team TeamTeam Team Online Research and Comprehension 1. Define problems 2. Locate information 3. Evaluate information 4. Synthesize and solve problems 5. Communicate solutions
  20. 20. The Rapid Appearance of The Internet in Personal and Professional Lives
  21. 21. 40% of the World’s Population Is Connected to the Internet
  22. 22. New Literacies Are Required by Everyone
  23. 23. Public Policies That Integrate the Internet Into Education The Australian Curriculum Manitoba, Canada - Literacy With ICT Across the Curriculum Common Core State Standards - U.S. “ICT competence is an important component of the English curriculum…” “…identifying questions…, locate information… critical thinking…synthesizing…communicating “…gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report”
  24. 24. These Are Confusing Times For Theory New Literacies = New Social Practices New Literacies = New Strategies and Dispositions New Literacies = Multiliteracies New Literacies = Multimodalities Classic Reading Comprehension Theory Street, 1995, 2003; Lankshear & Knobel, 2006 Castek, 2008; Coiro & Dobler, 2007 Cope & Kalantzis, 1999; New London Group, 1996 Hull & Schultz, 2002 Kintsch, 1998; 2004
  25. 25. And Let’s Not Forget The Larger Issue! How do we develop literacy theory when the object that we study continually changes on us, requiring additional new literacies?
  26. 26. One Approach A dual-level theory of change framed by qualitative methodological thinking. New Literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies new literacies
  27. 27. A Dual Level Theory of New Literacies: Learning from One Another to Advance Theory and Research New Literacies new literacies of social practices and mindsets (Lankshear & Knobel; Street; and others) new discourses (Gee and others) new literacies of online research and comprehension (Castek;Coiro; Leu; and others) new semiotic contexts (Kress; Jewitt; Lemke; and others) Multi-modal approaches (Hull and others) Upper Case New Literacies: Common patterns and principles lower case new literacies new literacies of young children (Marsh; and others) new tools (Brown and others) Out of school literacies (Alvermann and others) etc.
  28. 28. New Literacies: Nine Principles 1. The Internet is this generation’s defining technology for literacy and learning in our global community. 2. The Internet and related technologies require additional, new literacies to fully access their potential. 3. New literacies are deictic. 4. New literacies are multiple, multimodal, and multifaceted and, as a result, our understanding of the benefits from multiple points of view. New Literacies
  29. 29. New Literacies: Nine Principles 5. Critical literacies are central to new literacies. 6. New forms of strategic knowledge are required with new literacies. 7. New social practices are a central element of new literacies. 8. Identity and epistemic cognition are important to learning. 9. Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms. New Literacies
  30. 30. The new literacies of online research and comprehension New Literacies new literacies of online research and comprehension gaming text messaging multimodal content construction video creation
  31. 31. Why Have Some of Us Selected This Line of Research?  Closely connected to learning  Immediate classroom application  Appears to be increasingly important to one’s success in life  High frequency of use  Our students appear to lack many of these skills
  32. 32. An Example of Online Reading Comprehension Reading About Martin Luther King The new literacies of online reading comprehension
  33. 33. Locate Online Information Evaluate Online InformationLocate Online Information Evaluate Online Information Locate Online Information Evaluate Online Information
  34. 34. Evaluate Online Information Evaluate Online Information Evaluate Online Information
  35. 35. Evaluate Online Information Evaluate Online Information
  36. 36. The new literacies of online research and comprehension 1. Online reading comprehension is a self-directed process of text construction and knowledge construction. 2. Five practices appear to define online reading comprehension processing: 1) defining a problem and then 2) locating, 3) evaluating, 4) synthesizing, and 4) communicating information. 3. Online reading comprehension is not isomorphic with offline reading comprehension; additional skills and strategies appear to be required.
  37. 37. The new literacies of online research and comprehension 4. Online information contexts may be especially supportive for some struggling readers. 5. Adolescent “digital natives” may be skilled in some areas of the Internet (social networking, texting, video downloads, MP3 downloads, or mash- ups) but they are not always as skilled in information use and online reading comprehension. 6. Collaborative online reading and writing practices appear to increase comprehension and learning.
  38. 38. Pushback: Four Arguments to Reject The Difference Hypothesis • “Reading a web page is no different from reading a page in a book.” (Task isomorphism) • “The cognitive processes are identical.” - inferential reasoning is inferential reasoning; self-regulation is self-regulation, etc. (Processing isomorphism) • “One must critically evaluate sources offline as well as online; one can conduct research offline as well as online.” (Activity isomorphism) • PISA data shows little or no correlation.
  39. 39. Reading Comprehension Has Changed: Online and Offline Reading Comprehension Are Not Isomorphic (r=0.19, n = 89, N.S.) Leu, Castek, Hartman, Coiro, Henry, Kulikowich, Lyver, 2005 Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Blog Offline Reading = Connecticut Mastery Test (CMT) of Reading Comprehension
  40. 40. Additional Evidence: Predicting Online Reading Comprehension R2 Offline Reading Comprehension Additional R2 Domain Knowledge Additional R2 Previous Online Reading Comprehension Total R2 Online Reading Comprehension .351* .074 .154* .579* Coiro, 2011 The new literacies of online reading comprehension Offline Reading Comp.= CT State Reading Test Online Reading Comprehension = ORCA Quia
  41. 41. The Struggling Reader Phenomenon
  42. 42. Implications: New Literacies Theory: Rapid Changes To Literacy Will Increase Likelihood of Misalignments in Multiple Areas of Education Assessments of Literacy Equity, Access, and Instruction Research Professional Development and Teacher Education
  43. 43. Assessments of Literacy In a world of increasing assessments, new literacies will not fully enter the classroom until they appear in important assessments. Assessments will need to continuously include the most recent technologies for literacy and learning. Assessments will need to include collaborative online reading.
  44. 44. Equity in Access and Instruction Rapid changes will increase misalignments in access and instruction by income inequality. This will also be true with local, region, and national comparisons. More on this later….
  45. 45. Research: Essential Questions 1. What are the social practices, skills, strategies, and dispositions essential to the acquisition of new literacies? 2. How might we best support the development of these aspects of new literacies within both real and virtual learning contexts? 3. How can we distribute research findings faster without losing quality?
  46. 46. Professional Development and Teacher Education Perhaps the greatest challenge of all. Should not assume new teachers are fully literate with online information use. Much more time will be required in both schools and in teacher education programs as traditional models of instruction are disrupted by Internet technologies.
  47. 47. Theory Building In A Deictic World of Literacy Conducting and publishing research on a new time cycle. Reward systems that include collaboration. Looking beyond our own lowercase literacies to learn from others.
  48. 48. What Have We Considered? Literacy is deictic. Theoretically, we are separating as we face a central conundrum. One solution is a two-level theoretical framework. This may help us learn from one another as we advance both theory and understanding.
  49. 49. I Welcome Your Own Thinking! Literacy as Deixis in An Online World: Epistemological Issues