MONKEYBARThe ecological and environmental determinants ofthe zoonotic malaria P. knowlesi in Palawan, The Philippinesand S...
Plasmodium knowlesi• Identified in 1930s and shown to have contrasting virulence in  different simian hosts• Little eviden...
Plasmodium knowlesi/ malariecases notifications, 2001-2011
MONKEYBARMultidisciplinary approach to understand the effects of land usechange on zoonotic malaria risk• What is the exte...
Case Control study•   Current progress     – Testing and validation of case        control questionnaires     – Training a...
Entomology•   Current progress     – First training and use of e-nets in        SE Asia in the Philippines          • Allo...
Primatology•   Current progress     – Partnership with Sabah Wildlife        Department / Danau Girang Field        Centre...
Social Science•   Current progress     – Refining questionnaires and tools        for focus group discussions     – Joint ...
Stakeholder engagement• APMEN - RCT for Pk treatment options• UBS Social Science - use of Photovoice to  understand risk p...
Training• PhD students:    – Malaysia: U of Malaya/ U Malaysia, Sabah    – Philippines: U of Philippines, Los Banos    – U...
Next activities• Collection of land use data to classify entomological and primate  habitats• Overlaying of movement patte...
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MONKEYBAR

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  • 3 crude ecological areas- primary forest (P. Banggi), secondary forest/ coastal Kudat with increasing amounts of land cover change, KM mountains/ hill/ increased elevationPrimary scientific focus of first year of project
  • Sensitive area, development of locally appropriate methodologies for sampling and collaring macaques
  • Piloting and social acceptability of GPS tracking
  • Local students funded internally with support from local universities, 2 per site- entomology and primatology from the Philippines/ 2 ento/ 1 Msc MalaysiaUK students- additional funding applications from other sources
  • Spatial patterns/
  • MONKEYBAR

    1. 1. MONKEYBARThe ecological and environmental determinants ofthe zoonotic malaria P. knowlesi in Palawan, The Philippinesand Sabah, Malaysia
    2. 2. Plasmodium knowlesi• Identified in 1930s and shown to have contrasting virulence in different simian hosts• Little evidence of widespread infection in humans until 2004; PCR revealed 80% of infections were P. knowlesi not P. Malariae• Increasing epidemiological evidence of P. knowlesi as an emerging public health problem• Increased priority for local governments – Routine screening for Pk in Philippines
    3. 3. Plasmodium knowlesi/ malariecases notifications, 2001-2011
    4. 4. MONKEYBARMultidisciplinary approach to understand the effects of land usechange on zoonotic malaria risk• What is the extent of the problem? (burden of P. knowlesi disease in humans on a regional scale)• What are the risk factors for exposure/ infection? (same as Pf & Pv? Is there Human to Human transmission?)• If and how can we control the vectors? (integrated into current vector control, or new strategy needed?)• How Pk affects the elimination strategies of WPRO countries (realistic aim given the potential increase of this zoonotic species?)• How Pk control can be implemented at the regional level (considerable unmonitored population movement)
    5. 5. Case Control study• Current progress – Testing and validation of case control questionnaires – Training and recruitment of local fieldworkers – Recruitment of 30+ cases with controls, on-going data collection in two sites (MAP) – RCT - treatment options for Pk• Next steps – Optimising ELISA to measure serological exposure to Pk – Molecular characterisation of parasites from cases - differences in phylogeny/clinical outcomes
    6. 6. Entomology• Current progress – First training and use of e-nets in SE Asia in the Philippines • Allows collection of vectors suitable for morphological identification and sequencing• Next steps – E-net training in Sabah – Comparison of mosquito collection methods using monkey and human baited traps
    7. 7. Primatology• Current progress – Partnership with Sabah Wildlife Department / Danau Girang Field Centre – Protocols under review with relevant authorities – Initial transect mapping• Next steps – Primatology census, transects and behavioural observations and GPS tracking – Optimising faecal sampling for parasite prevalence and genetics in macaque populations
    8. 8. Social Science• Current progress – Refining questionnaires and tools for focus group discussions – Joint training sessions and development of protocols for Photovoice• Next steps – Active fever surveillance in Palawan – Land use/ land cover mapping – GPS tracking of human movements
    9. 9. Stakeholder engagement• APMEN - RCT for Pk treatment options• UBS Social Science - use of Photovoice to understand risk perceptions• Multidisciplinary stakeholder meetings – Ministries of Health, Philippines and Malaysia – Wildlife Departments – Palawan Sustainable Development Council• Regional stakeholders – WHO - epidemiology of P. knowlesi – EcoHealth Alliance
    10. 10. Training• PhD students: – Malaysia: U of Malaya/ U Malaysia, Sabah – Philippines: U of Philippines, Los Banos – UK: additional funding applied for through other research councils• UK / Malaysian MSc students• Photovoice workshops• Training on entomological techniques with Department of Health• Microscopy training and molecular characterisation of infections for local public health workers• Primate ecology and behaviour field course at Danau Girang Field Centre
    11. 11. Next activities• Collection of land use data to classify entomological and primate habitats• Overlaying of movement patterns onto maps to identify likely points of encounter between humans, primates and vectors• Re-evaluation of parameters for mathematical models of Pk transmission• Integrated fieldwork to start June/ July 2013

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