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Key note given to conference of Swedish Association of Psychologists, Stockholm, by Emmy van Deurzen, 7May 2010

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  • Swedenparaandpassion10

    1. 1. Paradox and Passion: Existential Therapy and the Human Dilemma Stockholm 7 May 2010 <ul><li>Emmy van Deurzen </li></ul>
    2. 2. Emmy van Deurzen <ul><li>Honorary Professor University of Sheffield </li></ul><ul><li>Visiting Professor Middlesex University </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Schiller International University </li></ul><ul><li>Director Dilemma Consultancy Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Director Existential Academy Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Director New School of Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>and Counselling-London </li></ul>
    3. 3. www.existentialpsychotherapy.net www.dilemmas.org www.nspc.org.uk www.existentialacademy.com
    4. 4. Author of Books on Existential Psychotherapy and Counselling
    5. 5. Existential Supervision <ul><li>Edited by Emmy van Deurzen and Sarah Young </li></ul>
    6. 6. RECENT BOOK: 2009
    7. 7. 2010: 1. Second Edition Everyday Mysteries 2. Skills in Existential Counselling and Psychotherapy
    8. 8. Forthcoming <ul><li>Emotional Well Being and Health, with Digby Tantam, London: Sage, 2010 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Other books underway <ul><li>Existential couple work (co-ed) </li></ul><ul><li>Existential coaching (co-ed) </li></ul><ul><li>Third edition: Existential Counselling and Psychotherapy in Practice </li></ul>
    10. 10. Today: introduction to existential ideas and their focus on paradox and passion
    11. 11. <ul><li>Socrates: the unreflected life is not worth living. The good life is passionately lived. </li></ul>What does it mean to live well?
    12. 12. Not in the sense of martyrdom, sacrifice and suffering
    13. 13. In the sense of living life to the full in all its stark reality and contradictions
    14. 14. Camus: Sisyphus <ul><li>There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is … whether life is or is not worth living. </li></ul><ul><li>(Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus) </li></ul><ul><li>Is rolling the stone up the hill sufficient to fill a human heart? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Dark ages of therapy: blind leading the blind.
    16. 16. Descartes’ belief in doubt. 1596-1650 I realized that it was necessary, once in the course of my life, to demolish everything completely and start again right from the foundations if I wanted to establish anything at all. (Meditations II, p.12.)
    17. 17. Descartes worldview cogito ergo sum
    19. 19. School of Life
    20. 20. Psychotherapy as a beacon <ul><li>‘ perhaps the relationship between the modern psychotherapist and his patient is a beacon that ever-increasing numbers of men will find themselves forced to follow, lest they become spiritually enslaved or physically destroyed’ (Szasz 1962:272). </li></ul>
    21. 21. Existential Approach The existential approach to counselling and psychotherapy is a philosophical method for understanding human difficulties.
    22. 22. HUMAN CONDITION It focuses on the way in which the individual struggles with the human condition and in particular with our inevitable limitations: only if we deal with the negatives are the positives on option: paradox and conflict are central to the approach.
    23. 23. Can we have enduring happiness ? <ul><li>Happiness and unhappiness are twins that grow up together. (Nietzsche, 1882: 270) </li></ul><ul><li>We need to get to know both sides of life. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Neither positive nor negative
    25. 25. What is paradox in therapy? <ul><li>Only to the extent that we accept polarities, conflicts and contradictions do we learn to live with truth </li></ul><ul><li>Onto-dynamics rather than psycho-dynamics: </li></ul><ul><li>Life is tension between opposites </li></ul>
    26. 26. Making sense of life
    27. 27. Energy is the flow between two poles Source: kidzoneweather.com
    28. 28. Dialectics: transcendence in space Synthesis: a wider view future Thesis: my view (past ) Antithesis: your view (present)
    29. 29. Dimensions and Tensions of Human Existence Desires Fears Physical (earth) Life pleasure Death pain Social (world) Love belonging Hate isolation Personal (man) Identity integrity Freedom disintegration Spiritual (gods) Good purpose Evil futility
    30. 30. Human values rediscovered.   DESIRES FEARS VALUES PHYSICAL life death vitality SOCIAL love hate reciprocity PERSONAL identity freedom integrity SPIRITUAL good evil transparency
    31. 31. Aim of existential therapy. <ul><li>Enable clients to tell the truth about their lives and themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Help them live passionately and to the full. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate their greater understanding of the human condition and its contradictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize strengths and weaknesses and make the most of both. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to feel confident about living no matter what may come </li></ul>
    32. 32. Existential approach not a technique <ul><li>It is a worldview </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of method </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses universal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provides philosophical questioning and logic tools </li></ul><ul><li>Non prescriptive </li></ul>
    33. 33. Life as the guide and the goal. <ul><li>What are the life issues this client is preoccupied with? </li></ul><ul><li>What understanding of these does the therapist have? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the client’s values and project? </li></ul><ul><li>How can </li></ul><ul><li>I enhance </li></ul><ul><li>my own </li></ul><ul><li>engagement </li></ul><ul><li>with these </li></ul><ul><li>issues, values and projects? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Questions instead of answers <ul><li>What does it mean to be alive? Who am I? What is the purpose of my existence? How should we live? What can I hope to achieve? Is happiness possible? What is expected of me? How should I act and be in relation to other people? Is there fairness in the world? Can I make a change for the better? Is it possible to understand life and get a grip on it? Can I find ways of overcoming my troubles? Is it necessary to suffer this much? How can I be a better person and live a worthwhile life? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Authority over the illusions of our lives: we are nothing <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this sense it is necessary that we make ourselves what we are. But what are we then if we have the constant obligation to make ourselves what we are….? Man is the being through whom nothingness comes to the world. (Sartre, 1943:59) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Paradox and tensions of existence. Existential approach: related to, but not the same as positive psychology and well-being research: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Ed Diener, Ruut Veenhoven, Martin Seligman . The tragic depth of being human is as important as human potential and joy.
    37. 37. Existential therapy: Reflecting on living in search of truth <ul><li>Therapists clarify ethical problems and problems in living. They ask questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the person’s worldview? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their situation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their values? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their purpose in life? </li></ul><ul><li>What has been their fate? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their destiny? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their struggles? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their talents? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their yearnings? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their connections to the world and others? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their attitude? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their actions? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Different aspects of therapeutic relationship
    39. 39. Wheels within wheels Being me
    40. 40. Landscapes of our life <ul><li>Understand the Lebenswelt: </li></ul><ul><li>the world in which we live </li></ul><ul><li>1.How do we experience the world? </li></ul><ul><li>2.What does our life landscape look like? </li></ul><ul><li>3.Where are we going? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Objective of therapy. <ul><li>Helping a person rediscover their vision. </li></ul><ul><li>It is about seeing and overseeing the situation of their life. </li></ul><ul><li>Widening their horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>Helicopter view of life. </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to get some perspective and make new connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand a bit more about human existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Process of existential work <ul><li>Directive versus non-directive: be direct and directional instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation and relation to world on four dimensions:be aware of paradox and polarities. </li></ul><ul><li>How is the person </li></ul><ul><li>situated: </li></ul><ul><li>use emotional </li></ul><ul><li>compass. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to </li></ul><ul><li>worldview </li></ul><ul><li>and purpose. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Work on: <ul><li>Shift your client’s perception of their world by looking at it from different angles. </li></ul><ul><li>Help them to be more forthright in establishing relationships and encountering others in a direct and real way. </li></ul><ul><li>Help them understand their own experience, situation, dilemma and purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Help them face up to underlying human issues, contradictions, possibilities, limits. </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Become aware of your own bias: outlook, assumptions, beliefs, prejudice, blind spots. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and articulate the client’s worldview and life space. </li></ul><ul><li>No judgements. Understanding rather than interpretation. Recognizing difference. </li></ul>Work with bias.
    45. 45. Values and context <ul><li>Recognize your clients’ values and differentiate them from your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to read and understand the text of the client’s life, find the narrative point of gravity, the subtext and the context. </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account the social, cultural and political dimension of the client’s life. Put this in context with your own worldview and beliefs. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Existential Space Physical space Social space Personal space Spiritual space
    47. 47. Your own little sphere of existence matters
    48. 48. Imagine a person like a sphere
    49. 49. That person is located in a universe with other planets, stars, suns, moons and spheres
    50. 50. Sphere as a planet or a cell: micro or macro level.
    51. 51. If a cell: connection with other cells, function and internal constitution are paramount
    52. 52. If planet: orbit and position matter
    53. 53. Merleau Pont: Visible and Invisible <ul><li>Things are structures – frameworks – the stars of our life: they gravitate around us. Yet there is a secret bond between </li></ul><ul><li>us and them – </li></ul><ul><li>through perception </li></ul><ul><li>we enter into the </li></ul><ul><li>essence of the flesh </li></ul><ul><li>(Visible and Invisible: 220) </li></ul>
    54. 54. You experience yourself as having a nucleus: a core, a heart or a soul
    55. 55. Perhaps we are more like suns, generating heat and light
    56. 56. Solar anatomy
    57. 57. Layers of the sun <ul><li>Corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, and core. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Layers of a person’s life. 4.Physical: Umwelt 3.Social: Mitwelt 2.Personal: Eigenwelt 1.Spiritual: Uberwelt
    59. 59. Merleau Ponty: soul <ul><li>The soul is the hollow of the body, the body is the distension of the soul. The soul adheres to the body as their signification adheres to the cultural things, whose reverse or other side it is. (233) </li></ul>
    60. 60. Layers of a person’s life. 4.Physical: Umwelt 3.Social: Mitwelt 2.Personal: Eigenwelt 1.Spiritual: Uberwelt
    61. 61. Dimensions of existence Spiritual: Good/Evil Intuitions, values, beliefs, purpose, meaning. Worldview/Ideas. Personal: Strength/Weakness Thoughts, memories, identity, freedom. Selfhood/Me. Social: Love/Hate Feelings, relations, belonging, acknowledgement. Communication/Others. Physical: Life/Death Sensations, actions, environment, body, things. Survival/World.
    62. 62. Different perspectives <ul><li>Depending on where we stand light refracts differently through the prism of life. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Our emotions colour our worldview <ul><li>They create different atmospheres at different times. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Emotions are our orientation. <ul><li>Emotions are like the weather: never none. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the way we relate to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>They define the mood of the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>They are our atmosphere and modality. </li></ul><ul><li>They tell us where we are. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to tune in rather than tune out. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the emotional compass. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Formulate the questions by finding the atmosphere and the mood. <ul><li>When we master a mood, we do so by way of a counter-mood; we are never free of moods. (Heidegger 1927:136) </li></ul>
    66. 66. pride jealousy anger- despair fear sorrow shame envy hope- desire love joy Sadness Low Happiness High Anxiety Excitement Engagement Depression Disappointment Disengagement
    67. 67. Emotional Compass 1:Pride-confidence-arrogance 2:Jealousy-worry-vigilance 3:Anger-hate-despair 4:Fear-confusion-cowardice 5:Sorrow-misery-resignation Shame-emptiness-guilt:7 Envy-curiosity-aspiration:8 Hope-desire-resolve:9 Love-courage-commitment:10 Joy-thrill-excitement:11 6. Low Despondency Depression Exhilaration Happiness 12:High Up gain Down loss
    68. 68. The colour of emotion
    69. 71. Depressed worldview
    70. 72. Compass of Physical Sensation Greed Stinginess Frustration Disgust Pain Need Craving Excitement Lust Pleasure Deprivation Emptiness Satisfaction Fullness Gain Survival Loss Threat
    71. 73. Compass of Social Feeling Care Jealousy Anger Fear Rejection Shame Envy Approval Love Acceptance Isolation Separateness Belonging Oneness Engagement Disengagement
    72. 74. Compass of Personal Thinking Superiority Stubbornness Defiance Deflation Humiliation Inferiority Anxiety Courage Commitment Confidence Imperfection Weakness Perfection Strength Success Failure
    73. 75. Compass of Spiritual Intuition Pride Prudence Wrath Resignation Disillusionment Guilt Aspiration Hope Resoluteness Bliss Futility Absurdity Meaning Purpose Good Evil
    74. 76. Rising above your emotions <ul><li>Above the clouds the weather is steady even when it rains below. </li></ul><ul><li>Transcending our own situation and emotions allows us to understand our own response. </li></ul>
    75. 77. Anton Chekhov <ul><li>Any idiot can face a crisis – </li></ul><ul><li>it’s day to day living </li></ul><ul><li>that wears you out </li></ul>
    76. 78. Marcus Aurelius <ul><li>It is not death that a man should fear, but he should fear never beginning to live </li></ul><ul><li>The paradox is that death, troubles, labour, failures, pain and sorrow are unavoidable and necessary </li></ul><ul><li>They are the things that wake you up to awareness and that open you to life </li></ul><ul><li>Yet some troubles are more like catastrophes </li></ul>
    77. 79. When crisis strikes our lives are revolutionized In the whirlwind of change we need to find steadiness, persistence and resilience
    78. 80. Rita’s Grief <ul><li>When I speak to Rita, who is grieving over her husband and small son who have perished in a car accident, the words that I say to her at first hardly reach her. </li></ul><ul><li>She is in a place of relative safety deep inside of herself, in a state of suspended animation behind the façade that she turns to the world. She barely engages with people at all. </li></ul>
    79. 81. Rita’s grief 2 <ul><li>At first it is not my words that make the link to her world, but the consistency that I can offer in being attentive and careful to not hurt her further or push her too hard. </li></ul><ul><li>I spend nearly half an hour in relative silence with Rita, at times formulating her fear on her behalf, gently, tentatively, checking for verification by noting her response. </li></ul>
    80. 82. Rita’s grief 3 <ul><li>Mostly the work consists of me letting myself be touched by her suffering and learning to tolerate her pain with her, so that I can offer reactions and words that soothe and move her forward to a place where she can begin to face what has happened to her so shockingly out of the blue. In this process she guides me and exposes more and more of her nightmarish universe to me as she perceives me as capable of venturing further into it with her. </li></ul>
    81. 83. Meaning and Purpose <ul><li>Find out what the inner landscape of a person is: what is meaningful to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what your purpose in life is. </li></ul>
    82. 84. Resilience <ul><li>How do people overcome obstacles? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they survive difficu lties, crises, trauma? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there personal qualities that enable a person to be resilient? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there certain ways of being that are more conducive to survival and learning from traumatic experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Role of creative use of trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is a genetic given for 50% of our happiness quotient. </li></ul><ul><li>How do we live well? </li></ul>
    83. 85. Rita World Physical Social Personal Spiritual Umwelt Take interest in objects, space Meet others Relate to own body again Recognize value Mitwelt Leave dead behind Love dead still Find self valid Find others valid Eigenwelt Recover sense of self care Rediscover love Love self Find project Uberwelt Make sense of disaster Life with others is worthwhile I am me and this matters There is a purpose to it all
    84. 86. Existential Approach The existential approach to counselling and psychotherapy is a philosophical method for understanding human difficulties: not in order to eliminate problems but in order to face them to thrive on them.
    85. 87. Getting help from the philosophers. <ul><li>For some it is all darkness; for me too, </li></ul><ul><li>it is dark. But there are hands </li></ul><ul><li>there I can take, voices to hear </li></ul><ul><li>solider than the echoes </li></ul><ul><li>without. And sometimes a strange light </li></ul><ul><li>shines, purer than the moon, </li></ul><ul><li>casting no shadow, that is </li></ul><ul><li>the halo upon the bones </li></ul><ul><li>of the pioneers who died for truth. </li></ul><ul><li>R.S. Thomas, Groping:99. </li></ul>
    86. 88. EXISTENTIAL PHILOSOPHERS Philosophers of freedom Pheno- menology Existentialism Post-modernism S Ö ren Kierkegaard 1813-1855 Franz Brentano 1838-1917 Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980 Michel Foucault 1926-1984 Friedrich Nietzsche 1844-1900 Edmund Husserl 1859-1938 Maurice Merleau Ponty 1908-1961 Paul Ricoeur 1913-2005 Karl Jaspers 1883-1969 Martin Heidegger 1889-1976 Albert Camus 1913-1960 Jacques Derrida 1931-2004
    87. 89. Existential Philosophers <ul><li>Kierkegaard Nietzsche Husserl Jaspers Heidegger Sartre de Beauvoir Buber Camus Merleau Ponty Foucault </li></ul>
    88. 90. Existential Practitioners <ul><li>Binswanger Boss Frankl </li></ul><ul><li>Tillich May Laing </li></ul>
    89. 91. Living happily or living well: an existential view <ul><li>Crystallization of discontent may be the beginning of insight into what is wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict, dilemmas and problems are an intrinsic part of being alive </li></ul><ul><li>Being cured of difficulties is the death of possibility and creativity </li></ul>
    90. 92. Tillich’s Courage to Be <ul><li>Courage is the universal self-affirmation of one’s Being in the presence of the threat of non-Being (Tillich 1952:163). </li></ul>
    91. 93. Integrating non being: Paul Tillich: 1886-1965 <ul><li>A neurotic person can take on board only a little bit of non-being </li></ul><ul><li>The average person can take on a limited amount of non-being </li></ul><ul><li>The creative person can accommodate a large amount of non-being </li></ul><ul><li>God can tolerate an infinite amount of non-being. </li></ul>
    92. 94. The negatives that are positives <ul><li>Anxiety far from being something to shun and treat as a symptom to eliminate is the source of energy that makes us come to life </li></ul><ul><li>Our capacity for despair is what makes us deep and capable of feeling, empathy and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Without suffering our lives would have less meaning </li></ul><ul><li>To be human is to be conscious and be aware of lack, trouble, difficulty and strife. </li></ul>
    93. 95. Being-in-the-world
    94. 96. Frankl’s way to meaning <ul><li>Experiential values : what we take from the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative values : what we give to the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal values :the way we deal with suffering. </li></ul>
    95. 97. Baumeister (1991) Meanings of Life <ul><li>Baumeister’s four basic needs for meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for purpose (spiritual) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for value (social) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for efficacy (physical) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for self-worth (personal) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process of going in the general direction of these four objectives that makes for a good life. </li></ul>
    96. 98. The right level of challenge <ul><li>To live a meaningful life and have goals and values is not enough: you must also feel you are capable of achieving these things. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ It is necessary to find moderately difficult tasks to maintain that middle ground between boredom (too easy) and anxiety (too hard).’ (Baumeister, 1991: 41) </li></ul>
    97. 99. Different dimensions of the four spheres of existence Umwelt Mitwelt Eigenwelt Uberwelt Physical survival Nature Things Body Cosmos Social affiliation Public Others Ego Culture Personal identity Private Me Self Consciousness Spiritual meaning Sacred God Soul Transcendence
    98. 100. Project, praxis, dialectics <ul><li>‘ Man is characterised above all by his going beyond a situation and by what he succeeds in making of what he has been made. This is what we call the project. (Sartre, Search for a Method: 91). </li></ul><ul><li>We define project by praxis. Action, passion and reflection. Constant transcendence and dialectical progression . </li></ul>
    99. 101. Find your own way Be clear of your goal and make the most of the journey Learn to live deliberately rather than by default
    100. 102. Emotional well being <ul><li>An ability to creatively encounter challenges, losses and crises </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for re-establishing equilibrium through strong, dynamic centre of narrative gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment of life, appreciation of physical world, others, self-worth and meaning. </li></ul>
    101. 103. Magritte: Empire of Lights. Learning to live with paradox and the tensions of life
    102. 104. Tillich, 1966:15
    103. 105. Kierkegaard’s paradox <ul><li>Personhood is a synthesis of possibility and necessity . </li></ul><ul><li>Its continued existence is like breathing (respiration), </li></ul><ul><li>which is an inhaling and exhaling. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kierkegaard, Sickness unto Death: 40) </li></ul>
    104. 106. Inspiration and expiration
    105. 107. pride jealousy anger- despair fear sorrow shame envy hope- desire love joy Sadness Low Happiness High Anxiety Excitement Engagement Depression Disappointment Disengagement
    106. 108.   Accept unspoken givens of life: engage with them: Human evolution from: passionate engagement with problems and conflicts: understanding and overcoming
    107. 109. Rely on your capacity to face whatever may come.
    108. 110. Optimal living All living things are struggling for existence, even unwittingly and unwillingly. They struggle passively just to exist, to be left in what seems to be peace and quiet; and they struggle actively to grow and to expand. (Jaspers,1951:204)
    109. 111. Loving your Life <ul><li>To live well is to live in harmony with your own life and to love it in all its manifestations (Nietzsche’s Amor Fati) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and difficulties to be welcomed : life as an adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Increase capacity for feeling or decrease it </li></ul><ul><li>More feeling means more suffering and more reality. Less suffering means to care less and be less sensitive, but also less tuned in to life and less creative </li></ul><ul><li>The choice is yours. Your life belongs to you. </li></ul>
    110. 112. www.existentialpsychotherapy.net www.dilemmas.org www.nspc.org.uk www.existentialacademy.com
    111. 113. Values and actions to make you feel good and strong and true instead of happy. <ul><li>Earning your keep with your own labour </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding others </li></ul><ul><li>Pondering your own motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on your life </li></ul><ul><li>Living true to your own values </li></ul><ul><li>Living in line with the purpose and truth of human existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing more to the world than you take from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Respecting nature and the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Making your life matter </li></ul><ul><li>Loving as much as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Being prepared for change and transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing when to be resolute and when to let go. </li></ul><ul><li>Having rules to live by and change them when necessary. </li></ul>
    112. 114. Background action to make life right. <ul><li>to be healthy and look after your body the best way possible. </li></ul><ul><li>to enjoy what is free in the world and be close to nature </li></ul><ul><li>to be loving with others and care for someone deeply. </li></ul><ul><li>to respect and esteem yourself and make sure others do too. </li></ul><ul><li>to find concrete goals worth putting your whole energy into. </li></ul><ul><li>to learn to question things and not take anything for granted </li></ul><ul><li>to find life interesting and relish every minute </li></ul><ul><li>to be prepared to let things go and be ready to die </li></ul><ul><li>to strive for wisdom and excellence </li></ul><ul><li>to be content and find routines that satisfy you </li></ul><ul><li>to achieve something, whatever, and leave the world a better place than you found it. </li></ul>
    113. 115. Phenomenological Method <ul><li>I. Phenomenological reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Eidetic reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>III. Transcendental reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cogito </li></ul></ul></ul>
    114. 116. Find a new perspective
    115. 117. Intentionality <ul><li>Cogito(subject):transcendental reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Noesis(process):phenomenological reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Noema(object):eidetic reduction </li></ul>
    116. 118. Finding space and direction.
    117. 119. I.Phenomenological reduction <ul><ul><li>1. Noesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Epoche: suspend assumptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Description. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Horizontalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Equalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Verification. </li></ul></ul>
    118. 120. II. Eidetic Reduction <ul><ul><li>1. Noema. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Abschattungen:profiles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Wesenschau: looking for essences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Genetic constitution (vs. static). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Universals beyond the properties. </li></ul></ul>
    119. 121. III. Transcendental reduction <ul><ul><li>1. Cogito. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Transcendental ego. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Solipsism overcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Horizon of intentionality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Self as point zero. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Transcendental intersubjectivity. </li></ul></ul>
    120. 122. <ul><li>Become aware of your own bias: outlook, assumptions, beliefs, prejudice, blind spots. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and articulate the client’s worldview and life space. </li></ul><ul><li>No judgements. Understanding rather than interpretation. </li></ul>Work with bias.
    121. 123. Therapist bias <ul><li>Attitude : based on aptitude, genetic predisposition, constitution, temperament, previous experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation: based on worldview, beliefs and theoretical framework, perspective, cultural bias </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind: current situation, basic orientation in the world, point of view, emotional state, mood </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: response to this particular client, situation, interaction, provocation </li></ul>
    122. 124. Client Bias <ul><li>Attitude : based on aptitude, genetic predisposition, constitution, temperament, previous experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation: based on worldview, beliefs and theoretical belief system, perspective, cultural bias </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind: current situation, basic orientation in the world, point of view, emotional state, mood, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: response to this particular person, situation, interaction, provocation </li></ul>
    123. 125. Existential Therapy and life. <ul><li>Existential therapy addresses the whole of human existence as it is experienced by the person </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for philosophical and yet deeply individual perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Widens and broadens the horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Values paradox and encourages living with the tension of life </li></ul>
    124. 126. Like Sisyphus <ul><li>Always onwards </li></ul><ul><li>And upwards </li></ul><ul><li>Enough </li></ul><ul><li>To fill </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Heart. </li></ul>
    125. 127. Breakthrough in stead of breakdown. <ul><li>Loss and transition are about breakdown of the old. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of breaking down and becoming depressed it can mean we break through some block and move on to a next level. </li></ul><ul><li>In the process we become stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>This is how human evolution progresses. </li></ul>
    126. 128. Leading a philosophical life. To lead a philosophical life means also to take seriously our experience of men, of happiness and hurt, of success and failure, of the obscure and confused. It means not to forget but to possess ourselves inwardly of our experience, not to let ourselves be distracted but to think problems through, not to take things for granted but to elucidate them. (Jaspers,1951:122)
    127. 129. Making new connections <ul><li>Umwelt: understand physical context and embodiment: person’s relation to the world around them. Behavioural/Bioenergy/Biodynamic/Classic Psychoanalysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitwelt: describe and take into account the social, cultural and political dimension of the client’s life. Object relations/Systemic/TA/Group/CBT. </li></ul><ul><li>Eigenwelt: read and understand the text of the client’s life, find the narrative point of gravity. Who do they think they are? Gestalt/Self Psychology/Ego-Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Uberwelt: recognize worldview and values: what is the purpose of the person’s life? Jungian/Psychosynthesis/Core process/Transpersonal </li></ul>
    128. 130. Kierkegaard’s stages. <ul><li>Vegetative </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Leap of Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual </li></ul>
    129. 131. Dialectics <ul><li>Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Human evolution proceeds with constant conflict and forward movement in overcoming a previous state. </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxes and dilemmas can be integrated and gone beyond. </li></ul>
    130. 132. Tree of Knowledge and Exile from Paradise: human evolution. <ul><li>Man rejected happiness of Eden in order to explore life and labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Eden is not the objective. To understand the contrast of good and evil is to live with consciousness. </li></ul>
    131. 133. What is happiness? <ul><li>Happiness is a prolonged or </li></ul><ul><li>lasting emotional or affective </li></ul><ul><li>state that feels good or pleasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences associated with happiness include wellbeing, joy, pleasure, delight, health, safety and love , while contrasting ones include suffering , sadness , grief and pain . (Wikipedia 06) </li></ul>
    132. 134. Magritte: Empire of Lights: In the chaos of life and in the throes of our passion we learn to be whole, to be both wrong and right. Paradox and Passion, 98.
    133. 135. Human Condition <ul><li>The essential components of life dynamics consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxes, conflicts, dilemmas, contradictions, alternatives, dialectics, and experiments in living. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people are in some trouble or other most of the time. People are rarely without some preoccupation or problem. The body often has sore spots or pains or discomforts. The ego is often bruised or fearful. The self is often lacking in identity or strength. The soul is often confused or distracted and wary. </li></ul>
    134. 136. Images of happiness <ul><li>Walhalla, Utopia, el Dorado, Garden of Eden, Nirvana, Land of the Lotus eaters </li></ul>
    135. 137. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi <ul><li>Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . He defined and explored the concept of &quot;flow&quot;—as in &quot;in the flow&quot;—as our experience of optimal fulfillment and engagement. Flow, whether in creative arts, athletic competition, engaging work, or spiritual practice, is a deep and uniquely human motivation to excel, exceed, and triumph over limitation. </li></ul>
    136. 138. Flow <ul><li>1.  Clear goals: challenge level and skill level should both be high. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Concentrating and focusing </li></ul><ul><li>3. A  loss of the feeling of self consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Distorted sense of time , altered subjective experience </li></ul><ul><li>5. Direct and immediate  feedback  : immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>6.  Balance between ability level and challenge   </li></ul><ul><li>7. A sense of personal  control  over the situation or activity. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The activity is  intrinsically rewarding: effortlessness of action. </li></ul><ul><li>9. People become absorbed in their activity, and focus of awareness is narrowed down to the activity itself,  action awareness </li></ul>