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David Glass BIO Pacific Rim Conference presentation.12.09.14

Presentation at the 2014 BIO Pacific Rim Summit on Industrial Biotechnology, discussing fuel pathway petition processes under the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard and the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Includes discussion of 2014 changes proposed or implemented to each program.

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New Fuel Pathway 
Petitions Under the RFS 
and California LCFS 
David J. Glass, Ph.D. 
D. Glass Associates, Inc. 
BIO Pacific Rim Summit 
December 9, 2014
U.S. Renewable Fuel 
Standard
U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 
Background 
 Renewable Fuel Standard enacted 2005, revised in 
2007 (“RFS2”). RFS2 regulations finalized in 2010. 
 RFS2 established mandated volumes of 4 categories 
of renewable fuel to be used in the U.S. each year 
through 2022. 
 Established the criteria for each fuel category. 
 Producers of qualifying fuels can generate 
Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs): tradable 
credits with tangible value.
U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 
Fuel Categories 
Fuel Category 
(RIN type) 
Required Feedstock Minimum GHG 
Emission 
Reduction 
Renewable Fuel (D6) Ethanol from corn starch; 
other qualifying fuels 
20% 
Advanced Biofuel (D5) Any renewable feedstock 
except corn starch 
50% 
Biomass-Based Diesel 
(D4) 
Any renewable feedstock 50% 
Cellulosic Biofuel 
(D3, D7) 
Renewable cellulose, hemi-cellulose, 
or lignin 
60%
U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 
Fuel Pathways, RIN Requirements 
 RFS pathways include three 
components: 
(1) fuel type, (2) feedstock, 
(3) production process. 
 Each combination of the three 
components comprises a 
separate fuel pathway. 
 Certain pathways were 
evaluated and approved by EPA 
at the time of the 2010 
rulemaking; listed in Table 1 of 
40 CFR 80.1426(f).
U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 
Fuel Pathways, RIN Requirements 
 The 2010 rule created a provision for applicants 
to petition to have a new fuel or a novel 
production pathway evaluated and accepted 
into the program (40 CFR 80.1416). 
 Approved pathways are added to Table 1 of 
40 CFR 80.1426(f). 
 Once a pathway is approved, manufacturers 
have other requirements before they can issue 
RINs (e.g., third party facility audit, facility 
registration).

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David Glass BIO Pacific Rim Conference presentation.12.09.14

  • 1. New Fuel Pathway Petitions Under the RFS and California LCFS David J. Glass, Ph.D. D. Glass Associates, Inc. BIO Pacific Rim Summit December 9, 2014
  • 3. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Background  Renewable Fuel Standard enacted 2005, revised in 2007 (“RFS2”). RFS2 regulations finalized in 2010.  RFS2 established mandated volumes of 4 categories of renewable fuel to be used in the U.S. each year through 2022.  Established the criteria for each fuel category.  Producers of qualifying fuels can generate Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs): tradable credits with tangible value.
  • 4. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Fuel Categories Fuel Category (RIN type) Required Feedstock Minimum GHG Emission Reduction Renewable Fuel (D6) Ethanol from corn starch; other qualifying fuels 20% Advanced Biofuel (D5) Any renewable feedstock except corn starch 50% Biomass-Based Diesel (D4) Any renewable feedstock 50% Cellulosic Biofuel (D3, D7) Renewable cellulose, hemi-cellulose, or lignin 60%
  • 5. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Fuel Pathways, RIN Requirements  RFS pathways include three components: (1) fuel type, (2) feedstock, (3) production process.  Each combination of the three components comprises a separate fuel pathway.  Certain pathways were evaluated and approved by EPA at the time of the 2010 rulemaking; listed in Table 1 of 40 CFR 80.1426(f).
  • 6. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Fuel Pathways, RIN Requirements  The 2010 rule created a provision for applicants to petition to have a new fuel or a novel production pathway evaluated and accepted into the program (40 CFR 80.1416).  Approved pathways are added to Table 1 of 40 CFR 80.1426(f).  Once a pathway is approved, manufacturers have other requirements before they can issue RINs (e.g., third party facility audit, facility registration).
  • 7. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Original Pathway Approval Process  Petition requirements found in 40 CFR 80.1416.  EPA staff, website, were helpful but previously provided only minimal guidance for how to draft and submit petitions.  From 2010 to March 2014, EPA approved 24 petitions, but there was a backlog of 36 petitions awaiting action.  University of Illinois study (McCubbins and Endres 2013)* showed EPA’s average review time for new petitions was over 500 days. *http://farmdocdaily.illinois.edu/2013/05/epa-biofuel-pathways-petitions.html
  • 8. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard New Pathway Petition Process  March 2014, EPA announced it was reviewing the petition process, to streamline the procedure, enable more timely decision-making and provide improved guidance for applicants.  EPA asked applicants to voluntarily withhold new petitions during the expected 6-month internal review period.  On September 30, 2014, EPA announced the completion of its review and the revamping of its website and guidance for applicants.
  • 9. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard New, Simplified Website http://www.epa.gov/otaq/fuels/renewablefuels/new-pathways/
  • 10. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Improved Guidance for Petitions  Template to organize data and information in petitions.  Guidance document providing detailed instructions for petition contents.  Spreadsheet to input data on feedstock, mass and energy balance.  Pathway Screening Tool to determine need for new pathway petition. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/fuels/renewablefuels/new-pathways/documents/420b14069.pdf
  • 11. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Efficient Producer Petition Process  New, expedited “Efficient Producer” petition process for corn starch and grain sorghum ethanol producers that can demonstrate superior process efficiency.  To be used for evaluation of fuel pathways involving fuel types, feedstocks and production technologies that EPA has evaluated previously.  Tools available on EPA website for producers to determine eligibility, after which EPA conducts expedited review of petition.
  • 12. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Key Components of Petition (1) A. Cover Sheet, with suggested formatting. B. Technical Justification. Information on the pathway, the production process, its commercial viability, past and projected fuel volumes. C. Organizational information on the applicant. D. Fuel Type. Technical description of the fuel, its chemical composition, how it complies with regulatory definition, certification status.
  • 13. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Key Components of Petition (2) E. Production Process, including mass and energy balances (e.g. LCA and GHG reduction), historical process data. F. Feedstock. Detailed information, including genus/species of feedstock crop, chemical composition, market projections, market value, land use, invasiveness, etc. G. Co-Products. Information about potential co-products and their market value. H. Attachments of additional relevant information.
  • 14. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Additional EPA Guidance  Previous applicants will not have to resubmit, possibly except some who filed during “moratorium”.  EPA has no specific expectations for review times; but will notify applicants early if a petition is missing any important information.  The requested 2-5 years historical process data is not absolutely required, but helps EPA prioritize those petitions closer to commercial implementation.  The petition process will be used only for company-specific pathways: generic pathways will require rule-making as was previously the case.
  • 15. U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard Current Status: Pathway Petitions  A total of 37 petitions have now been approved, including 4 during “moratorium” and 9 in November 2014.  All 9 approved in November were submitted under the “Efficient Producer” process.  32 petitions are now pending, including several that were filed during the unofficial moratorium.
  • 16. California Low Carbon Fuel Standard
  • 17. California LCFS Background  Adopted as part of Assembly Bill 32, the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006.  Part of the state’s overall program of reducing carbon emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, administered by California Air Resources Board (ARB)  Under Executive Order S-1-07, the LCFS requires 10% reduction of carbon intensity of transportation fuels by 2020.  Escalating mandated targets for regulated parties to meet each year through 2020.
  • 18. California LCFS Carbon Intensities of Fuels  Fuels are assigned Carbon Intensity (CI) values relative to baseline gasoline or diesel GHG emissions.  CI values are not tiered like EPA RFS – each fuel gets a discrete CI value based on life cycle assessment (including indirect land usage).  Regulated parties comply by combinations of renewable fuel usage and credits. Credits created by overcompliance in any year by a regulated party.  Incentivizes development of low-carbon fuels, since economic value is directly proportional to GHG reduction.
  • 19. California LCFS Fuel Pathways  The regulations created a “Look-up Table” listing CIs for common fuel types: regulated parties can use CI values from the Table (“Method 1”).  Alternatively, developers of new fuels can petition for a CI value customized for its fuel:  Method 2A petitions for variations of existing pathways.  Method 2B petitions for new pathways.
  • 20. California LCFS Method 2A, 2B Applications  Company, facility information.  Pathway description, including process flow diagrams.  Carbon intensity of new pathway relative to baseline pathway.  Projected fuel production volumes.  Justification of “scientific defensibility”.
  • 21. California LCFS Method 2A, 2B Applications In addition to completed application form, provide:  Fuel production records, utility invoices, other records for 2 years of fuel production.  CA-GREET spreadsheet.  Air pollution control permits.  List, specifications of all combustion-powered equipment.  Third party engineering report.
  • 22. California LCFS Method 2A, 2B Application Process “Interim Status” upon publication
  • 23. California LCFS Status of Petitions  As of November 2014, 97 “Method 2” applications submitted – only 6 given final approval.  12 ARB-initiated pathways – only 3 given final approval.  But pathways, once published, can be used on an interim basis before final ARB approval.  Manufacturers of fuels with alternate production routes are each entitled to their own CI.  Therefore, ARB staff has been overwhelmed by the need to review multiple petitions to cover minor process differences, even for first generation biofuels like corn ethanol.
  • 24. California LCFS April 2014 Proposed Revisions  Reduce staff burden for review of conventionally produced first-generation biofuels by creating two tiers of new fuel pathways.  First-generation biofuels = Tier 1; advanced generation biofuels = Tier 2.  Tier 1 fuels would be assigned to “bins” grouped by the CI of the fuel. For example, all the fuels within a tier with the range of 90-100 gm CO2/MJ would be assigned a CI of 95 gm/MJ.  More rigorous review of Tier 2 applications.
  • 25. California LCFS May 2014 Revised Proposal  ARB still proposing to distinguish between Tier 1 (1st Gen) fuels and Tier 2 (2nd Gen) fuels, but “bin” concept no longer being considered.  All Tier 1 fuels would use “Tier 1 Calculator” under CA-GREET 2.0 to establish CI value; no need for petition.  Tier 2 fuels would be able to utilize Method 1 (Look-up Table) or Methods 2A or 2B (using CA-GREET 2.0) to determine CI value.  Streamline process by consolidating pathway application with producer registration.
  • 26. California LCFS Proposed Tiered Review Process Source: California ARB, November 13, 2014
  • 27. European Union Renewable Energy Directive Comparison to RFS and LCFS Petition Processes
  • 28. Pathway Approvals: RFS, LCFS, EU RED  RFS: Petitions required for fuels, pathways not in Table 1 of 40 CFR 80.1426(f).  LCFS: Method 2 applications required for fuels not on the look-up table (or where a more favorable CI can be demonstrated).  EU RED: Biofuel suppliers need to certify compliance with carbon emission and sustainability criteria through third party audits and conformance with “sustainability schemes”.
  • 29. Conclusions  New EPA guidance provides greater clarity on the process and the requirements for petitions; should facilitate and expedite reviews.  California ARB proposals, if adopted, would streamline petition process, especially for 1st generation fuels.  Both EPA, CARB require submission of significant amounts of technical information to document compliance with regulations. As always, prior consultation with the agency would be recommended.  The number of filed petitions shows the level of corporate interest in renewable fuels, provides evidence that these laws are working.
  • 30. Thank you very much David J. Glass, Ph.D. D. Glass Associates, Inc. 124 Bird Street Needham, MA 02492 Phone 617-653-9945 dglass@dglassassociates.com www.dglassassociates.com