Eet3131 ccd cmos_presentation2

1,312 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,312
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
83
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Eet3131 ccd cmos_presentation2

  1. 1. IMAGE SENSORS Andrew Dillon Dan Ehlke April 21, 2008
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>CCD vs CMOS </li></ul><ul><li>Error & Loss </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing an image </li></ul><ul><li>Kodak KAF 8300 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Application <ul><li>Converts an optical image to an electric signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts photons into electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras, Scanners, Videocameras, Fax Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCD (charged coupled device) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CCD versus CMOS CCD CMOS <ul><li>Better light sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Superior Shuttering </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Made in non-standard process </li></ul><ul><li>More power consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Lower light sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>More energy efficient, ideal </li></ul><ul><li>for battery operated devices </li></ul><ul><li>Creating better and better images </li></ul><ul><li>as technology improves </li></ul>
  5. 5. CCD versus CMOS
  6. 6. CCD versus CMOS
  7. 7. Error & Loss <ul><ul><li>Dark Current: noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbtion Loss: optically insensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> areas on the pixel can’t absorb light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection Loss: silicon naturally reflects certain wavelengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission loss: very short & very large wavelengths may pass through pixel without generating an electron. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>increases with exposure time. </li></ul><ul><li>a function of the temperature of the sensor and associated electronics. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signal Conditioning <ul><li>Programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoshop </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Parameters <ul><li>Operating Range: Decibels (dB), ratio or bits </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity (Quantum efficiency) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>color gamut/range of values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly respond to 70% of the incident light (meaning a quantum efficiency of about 70%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: effects sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibration / movement: blurry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too bright (blooming) / Too Dark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overflow drains compensate for overfilling of wells. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Capturing an image <ul><li>Instead of film, a digital camera uses an image sensor </li></ul><ul><li>On the surface of these chips are millions of photosensitive diodes, each of which captures a single pixel in the photograph to be </li></ul><ul><li>Each pixel accumulates an electrical charge </li></ul><ul><li>-the more light that hits a pixel, the higher the charge it records </li></ul><ul><li>the charge from each pixel is measured and converted into a digital number </li></ul>
  11. 11. Capturing an image cont. <ul><li>pixels on an image sensor only capture brightness, not color </li></ul><ul><li>Color systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, Blue and Green (RBG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>placing red, green, and blue filters over individual pixels on the image sensor can create color images </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kodak KAF 8300 Full Frame CCD Image Sensor FEATURES • High Resolution • High Dynamic Range • Low Noise Architecture APPLICATIONS • Photography • Industrial Imaging • Medical Imaging
  13. 13. Kodak KAF 8300 Parameters Architecture Full Frame CCD; with Square Pixels Total Number of Pixels 3448 (H) x 2574 (V) = approx. 8.9M Number of Effective Pixels 3358 (H) x 2536 (V) = approx. 8.6M Number of Active Pixels 3326 (H) x 2504 (V) = approx. 8.3M Pixel Size 5.4μm (H) x 5.4μm (V) Saturation Signal > 25.5 K e- Output Sensitivity 23 μ V/e- Quantum Efficiency, color 33%, 40 %, 33% R(600nm), G(540nm), B(480nm) Total Sensor Noise 16 e- Linear Dynamic Range 64.4 dB Linearity Error at 12ºC +/- 10% Charge Transfer Efficiency 0.999995 Parameters above are specified at T = 60 °C and a data rate of 28 MHz unless otherwise noted
  14. 15. Kodak KAF 8300 Specifications
  15. 16. Kodak KAF 8300 Typical Performance Curve
  16. 17. Bibliography <ul><li>http://www.dalsa.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dalsa.com/sensors/products/productdetails.asp?ProductID=FTF3041M </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.clarkvision.com/imagedetail/digital.sensor.performance.summary/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.shortcourses.com/guide/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-sensors.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dpreview.com/learn/?/Glossary/Camera_System/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kodak.com/global/en/business/ISS/Products/Fullframe/index.jhtml?pq-path=11937/11938/12138 </li></ul>
  17. 18. Questions?

×