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Perception and Personality in Organizations C  H  A  P  T  E  R 3
<ul><li>The arrest of nuclear scientist Dr. Wen Ho Lee for allegedly stealing secrets at Los Alamos National Lab opened a ...
Perceptual Process Model Environmental Stimuli Selective Attention Emotions and Behavior Organization and Interpretation F...
Selective Attention <ul><li>Characteristics of the object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size, intensity, motion, repetition, novel...
Splatter Vision Perception <ul><li>Secret Service agents practice “splatter vision” so that their selective attention proc...
Perceptual Organization/Interpretation <ul><li>Perceptual grouping principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul></ul>...
Social Identity Theory An Individual’s Social Identity ACME Widget Employee Live in the United States U. of Vermont Gradua...
Social Identity Theory Features <ul><li>Comparative process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare characteristics of our groups wi...
The Stereotyping Process Professors are absent-minded Our instructor is a professor Our instructor is absent-minded Develo...
How Accurate are Stereotypes? <ul><li>Some accuracy, but also distortion and error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits don’t desc...
Attribution Process <ul><li>Internal Attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that outcomes are due to motivation/abil...
Rules of Attribution External Attribution Internal Attribution Frequently Consistent with past Seldom Frequently Distincti...
Attribution Errors <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributing behavior of other people to int...
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Supervisor forms expectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behavior Supervisor’s behavi...
Dealing with Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>Awareness training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders learn effects of negative p...
Other Perceptual Errors <ul><li>Primacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recency </li></ul><...
<ul><li>To minimize racial slurs and other perceptual problems, the NHL requires every player to attend diversity awarenes...
Types of Diversity Initiatives <ul><li>Recruit people with diverse backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reasonable accomm...
Improving Perceptual Accuracy Improving Perceptual Accuracy Diversity Initiatives Empathize With Others Postpone Impressio...
Know Yourself (Johari Window) Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others Open Area Blind Area Unknown...
Personality Defined <ul><li>Relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's ...
Big Five Personality Dimensions Outgoing, talkative Courteous, empathic Caring, dependable Poised, secure Sensitive, flexi...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>During their retreat in Maine, employees at Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest complet...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>Extroversion versus introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing versus intuition  </li></ul...
Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internals believe in their effort and ...
Perception and Personality in Organizations C  H  A  P  T  E  R 3
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Ch03 persepsi&personality

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Ch03 persepsi&personality

  1. 1. Perception and Personality in Organizations C H A P T E R 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>The arrest of nuclear scientist Dr. Wen Ho Lee for allegedly stealing secrets at Los Alamos National Lab opened a long-simmering issue regarding bias against Asian-Americans. </li></ul>Dr. Wen Ho Lee © AFP/Corbis
  3. 3. Perceptual Process Model Environmental Stimuli Selective Attention Emotions and Behavior Organization and Interpretation Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting
  4. 4. Selective Attention <ul><li>Characteristics of the object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual context </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the perceiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perceptual defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations -- condition us to expect events </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Splatter Vision Perception <ul><li>Secret Service agents practice “splatter vision” so that their selective attention process takes in as much information as possible to protect presidents and other dignitaries. This reduces the chance of screening out potentially important information that might identify security risks. </li></ul>© AFP/Corbis
  6. 6. Perceptual Organization/Interpretation <ul><li>Perceptual grouping principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity/proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad world-views or ‘theories-in-use’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But can blind people to potentially better perspectives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Social Identity Theory An Individual’s Social Identity ACME Widget Employee Live in the United States U. of Vermont Graduate Employees at other firms People living in other countries Graduates from other schools
  8. 8. Social Identity Theory Features <ul><li>Comparative process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare characteristics of our groups with other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogenization process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive that everyone in a group has similar characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrasting process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form less favorable images of people in groups other than our own </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Stereotyping Process Professors are absent-minded Our instructor is a professor Our instructor is absent-minded Develop categories and assign traits Assign category’s traits to the person Assign person to category based on observable info
  10. 10. How Accurate are Stereotypes? <ul><li>Some accuracy, but also distortion and error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits don’t describe everyone in the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We screen out inconsistent information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are less accurate when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little interaction with people in that group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience conflict with members of that group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes enhance our own social identity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Attribution Process <ul><li>Internal Attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that outcomes are due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External Attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that outcomes are due to situation or fate rather than the person </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Rules of Attribution External Attribution Internal Attribution Frequently Consistent with past Seldom Frequently Distinctive from other situations Seldom Seldom Consensus (Other people are similar) Frequently
  13. 13. Attribution Errors <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributing behavior of other people to internal factors (their motivation/ability) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Serving Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Supervisor forms expectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behavior Supervisor’s behavior affects employee Employee’s behavior matches expectations
  15. 15. Dealing with Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>Awareness training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders learn effects of negative perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem is that awareness doesn’t prevent self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emerging three-prong strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support a learning orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in contingency leadership styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase employee self-efficacy </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Other Perceptual Errors <ul><li>Primacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most recent information dominates perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Halo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One trait forms a general impression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing other people are similar to you </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>To minimize racial slurs and other perceptual problems, the NHL requires every player to attend diversity awareness sessions. In these sessions, players learn to appreciate ethnic differences and the problems with prejudicial outbursts. </li></ul>Diversity Initiatives in the NHL © Reuters/Andy Clark/TimePix
  18. 18. Types of Diversity Initiatives <ul><li>Recruit people with diverse backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reasonable accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity awareness activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitize people to stereotypes/prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispel myths </li></ul></ul>© Reuters/Andy Clark/TimePix
  19. 19. Improving Perceptual Accuracy Improving Perceptual Accuracy Diversity Initiatives Empathize With Others Postpone Impression Formation Know Yourself Compare Perceptions With Others
  20. 20. Know Yourself (Johari Window) Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others Open Area Blind Area Unknown Area Hidden Area Open Area Blind Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Disclosure Feedback
  21. 21. Personality Defined <ul><li>Relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies </li></ul>
  22. 22. Big Five Personality Dimensions Outgoing, talkative Courteous, empathic Caring, dependable Poised, secure Sensitive, flexible Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience
  23. 23. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>During their retreat in Maine, employees at Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and learned how their personalities can help them understand each other more effectively. </li></ul>Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest
  24. 24. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator <ul><li>Extroversion versus introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing versus intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking versus feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Judging versus perceiving </li></ul>Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest
  25. 25. Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internals believe in their effort and ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behavior to that situation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Perception and Personality in Organizations C H A P T E R 3

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