Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations C  H  A  P  T  E  R 2
Customer Service at Singapore Air <ul><li>Singapore Airlines provides exceptional customer service by paying attention to ...
MARS Model of Behavior and Performance Individual Behavior and Performance Motivation Role Perceptions Situational Factors...
Employee Motivation <ul><li>Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dir...
Employee Ability <ul><ul><li>Competencies -- personal characteristics that lead to superior performance </li></ul></ul><ul...
Employee Role Perceptions <ul><li>Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results </li></ul><ul><ul...
Situational Factors <ul><li>Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilita...
Types of Work-Related Behavior Types of Work-Related Behavior Joining the Organization Remaining with the Organization Mai...
Definition of Learning <ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of...
Behavior Modification <ul><li>We “operate” on the environment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter behavior to maximize positive a...
A-B-Cs of Behavior Modification Example Consequences What happens After behavior Employee receives attendance bonus Behavi...
Contingencies of Reinforcement Behavior Increases/ Maintained Behavior Decreases Consequence is Introduced Consequence is ...
Schedules of Reinforcement   Behaviors 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9   Time (Days) 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15...
Behavior Mod at Nova Chemicals <ul><li>Nova Chemicals’ million dollar “recruitment and retention program” cut absenteeism ...
Behavior Modification Limitations <ul><li>Can’t reinforce nonobservable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer tends to wea...
Learning through Feedback <ul><li>Any information about consequences of our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies role perc...
Multi-Source (360 Degree) Feedback Evaluated Employee Co-worker Customer Subordinate Project leader Supervisor Co-worker S...
Giving Feedback Effectively Effective Feedback Specific Frequent Timely Relevant Credible
Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Behavioral modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing and modeling behavior of others </li></...
Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model Concrete experience Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization Active experiment...
Experiential Learning at CREST <ul><li>Around the tranquil Auburn Hills campus of Oakland Community College in Michigan, p...
Developing a Learning Orientation <ul><li>Value the generation of new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Reward experimentation  ...
Action Learning <ul><li>Experiential learning in which employees are involved in a “real, complex, and stressful problem,”...
Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations C  H  A  P  T  E  R 2
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Ch02 indbhvr&orglearning

  1. 1. Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations C H A P T E R 2
  2. 2. Customer Service at Singapore Air <ul><li>Singapore Airlines provides exceptional customer service by paying attention to the four drivers of individual behavior and performance: motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors (MARS). </li></ul>Courtesy of Singapore Airlines
  3. 3. MARS Model of Behavior and Performance Individual Behavior and Performance Motivation Role Perceptions Situational Factors Ability
  4. 4. Employee Motivation <ul><li>Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  5. 5. Employee Ability <ul><ul><li>Competencies -- personal characteristics that lead to superior performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person-job matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>select qualified people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop employee abilities through training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>redesign job to fit person's existing abilities </li></ul></ul></ul>M A R S BAR Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
  6. 6. Employee Role Perceptions <ul><li>Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding what tasks to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding relative importance of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  7. 7. Situational Factors <ul><li>Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work facilities </li></ul></ul>M A R S BAR
  8. 8. Types of Work-Related Behavior Types of Work-Related Behavior Joining the Organization Remaining with the Organization Maintaining Work Attendance Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship Performing Required Tasks
  9. 9. Definition of Learning <ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behavior Modification <ul><li>We “operate” on the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant versus respondent behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood that an operant behavior will be repeated depends on its consequences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A-B-Cs of Behavior Modification Example Consequences What happens After behavior Employee receives attendance bonus Behavior What person says or does Employee attends scheduled work Antecedents What happens before behavior Attendance bonus system is announced
  12. 12. Contingencies of Reinforcement Behavior Increases/ Maintained Behavior Decreases Consequence is Introduced Consequence is Removed Punishment Positive reinforcement Extinction Punishment Negative reinforcement No Consequence
  13. 13. Schedules of Reinforcement Behaviors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time (Days) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Continuous Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval
  14. 14. Behavior Mod at Nova Chemicals <ul><li>Nova Chemicals’ million dollar “recruitment and retention program” cut absenteeism rates by 25 percent and improved long-term employment at its Canadian construction site. </li></ul>© N. B. Scott Courtesy of Nova Chemicals
  15. 15. Behavior Modification Limitations <ul><li>Can’t reinforce nonobservable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer tends to wear off </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learning through Feedback <ul><li>Any information about consequences of our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies role perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback improves ability </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback motivates future behavior </li></ul>
  17. 17. Multi-Source (360 Degree) Feedback Evaluated Employee Co-worker Customer Subordinate Project leader Supervisor Co-worker Subordinate Subordinate
  18. 18. Giving Feedback Effectively Effective Feedback Specific Frequent Timely Relevant Credible
  19. 19. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Behavioral modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing and modeling behavior of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning behavior consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing consequences that others experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model Concrete experience Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation
  21. 21. Experiential Learning at CREST <ul><li>Around the tranquil Auburn Hills campus of Oakland Community College in Michigan, police, fire, and emergency medical personnel are acquiring tacit knowledge through experiential learning. </li></ul>Courtesy of CREST
  22. 22. Developing a Learning Orientation <ul><li>Value the generation of new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Reward experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize mistakes as part of learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage employees to take reasonable risks </li></ul>Courtesy of CREST
  23. 23. Action Learning <ul><li>Experiential learning in which employees are involved in a “real, complex, and stressful problem,” usually in teams, with immediate relevance to the company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team conceptualizes and applies a solution to a problem </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations C H A P T E R 2

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