Paper on sub-theme: “E-Learning” of " International Conference on Open Source for High Education (ICOSic 2010)"


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E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. Many people use the term different with e-learning, but in principle e-learning is learning to use electronic services as a means of help. The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone.

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Paper on sub-theme: “E-Learning” of " International Conference on Open Source for High Education (ICOSic 2010)"

  1. 1. E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy Paper on sub-theme: “E-Learning” of " International Conference on Open Source for High Education (ICOSic 2010)" Djadja Achmad Sardjana ( 2010 UNIVERSITAS WIDYATAMA JALAN CIKUTRA NO 204A BANDUNG -INDONESIA 40124
  2. 2. E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy Djadja Sardjana Jurusan Teknik Informatika, Universitas Widyatama, Jl. Cikutra 204A Bandung 40124 Telp./ Fax. +62–22–7278860 ABSTRACT services. So in the implementation of e-learning use of audio, video or computer device or a combination of all three. E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized In the literature, e-learning is defined as follows: "E- as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. The main learning is a generic term for all technologically supported learning using an array of teaching and learning tools as phone vehicle in the development of human resources is education and bridging, audio and videotapes, teleconferencing, satellite training. But when watching the situation geography, socio- economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was transmissions, and the more recognized web-based training or not adequate anymore when only relying on the ways of computer aided instruction also commonly referred to as online traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative courses "(Soekartawi, Haryono and Librero, 2002). Thus, the e- learning is learning supported by the implementation of strategies related to issues explored, studied and applied. In the global era, willingly or unwillingly, educations have to do with technology services such as telephone, audio, vidiotape, satellite technology, especially information technology. Many research transmission or computer. results indicate that the late master whom the information, it is Indonesia is located between 6 º and 11 º N latitude and 95 º too late also the gain opportunities to get ahead. Speed to 141 º BT BT is the largest archipelagic country in the world accompanied by demands could potentially contribute to the that lies between two continents, Asia and Australia with the education and training sector. Positive potential that technology number of 17,000 islands that stretch more or less along the 3200 has not only increased efficiency and effectiveness and flexibility miles from east to west and 1100 miles of North to South. These of the learning process, but also resulted in the development of geographical conditions more or less become an obstacle in the materials, shifting the role of teachers/trainers and the dissemination of education and training services using development of learner autonomy. The purpose of writing a paper conventional methods (face to face) to all citizens. is to describe things related to learning-based e-learning include: The main vehicle in the development of human resources is (1) Model-Based Learning e-learning in Education, (2) Role of E- education and training. But when watching the situation Learning in Educational Management Strategies, (3) Policy E - geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it Higher learning in Educational Management Strategy, and (4) is clear that it was not adequate anymore (not practical) when only Conclusion. relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies relating to the problem needs to Keywords explored, studied and applied. In the global era, as now, agree or not, willingly or Education, e-learning, management, policy, strategy unwillingly, have to do with technology, especially information technology. This is because these technologies have affected our lives everyday. Therefore, we should not 'stutter' technology. Many research results indicate that the late master whom the 1. INTRODUCTION information, it is too late also the gain opportunities to get ahead. E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly Information is already a 'commodity' as like other economic recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, goods. The role of information become increasingly large and both in the developed countries and in developing countries. visible in the modern world it is today. This is understandable Many people use the term different with e-learning, but in because the public now to the era of information society principle e-learning is learning to use electronic services as a (information age) or community knowledge (knowledge society). means of help. It is therefore not surprising that there are colleges that offer E-learning is a learning technology is relatively new in majors information or information technology, the college has Indonesia. To simplify the term, the electronic learning is developed into rapidly. shortened to e-learning. This word consists of two parts, ie 'e' is an Speed accompanied by demands could potentially abbreviation of 'electronica' and 'learning' which means 'learning'. contribute to the education and training sector. Positive potential So e-learning means learning by using electronic devices aid that technology has not only increased efficiency and effectiveness and flexibility of the learning process, but also
  3. 3. resulted in the development of materials, shifting the role of as a medium of cooperation can be a medium to conduct joint teachers / trainers and the development of learner autonomy. research or make some paper together. The purpose of writing a paper is to describe things related to learning-based e-learning include: (1) Model-Based Learning e- Research in the United States about the use of information learning in Education, (2) Role of E-Learning in Educational and communication technology for educational purposes known Management Strategies, (3) Policy E - Higher learning in to have a positive impact (Pavlik, 2006). Other studies conducted Educational Management Strategy, and (4) Conclusion. by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), "that the use of the Internet as a medium of education showed a positive effect on learning outcomes participants". Although there are still many barriers, especially in 2. E-LEARNING MODEL-BASED IN Indonesia, the education quality gap between such areas can be EDUCATION bridged by at least school model via the Internet, yaitu e-learning. Education is also affected by the rapid growth of virtual Requirement is to change the paradigm of teaching to learning. worlds. Schools via the Internet into something possible. e- Learning is different from teaching. Many definition, learning, an alternative educational medium that knows no time redefinition, or a quote about learning. In essence, learning is and space. Model schools via the Internet should be ideal for our about the change of self, change behavior, conduct discovery country. Utilization of e-learning is not separated from the internet (uncovering what had been closed). In short, learn to change a service. Because learning techniques that are available on the person to become educated, not just smart. "Smart" and internet so complete, so this will affect the task of teachers in the "intelligent" described by different: "Smart people know from learning process. repetition of others. Intelligent people can figure it out by themselves ". In the past, teaching and learning process is dominated by the role of teachers called "the era of teacher", while students only Profile of e-Learning participant is someone who (1) has a hear the explanation of teachers. Then, the process of learning and self-learning motivation high and has a commitment to study teaching is dominated by the role of teachers and books (the era of seriously for learning responsibility entirely on self-learning teacher and book) and the current teaching and learning process is participants themselves (Loftus, 2001), (2) love to learn and dominated by the role of teachers, books and technology (the era conduct studies, like reading for self development continuously, of teacher, book and technology). and who enjoys freedom, (3) have failed in certain subjects at school and need a replacement to conventional, or who require Internet technology is essentially a development of previous- specific subject matter that is not served by local conventional generation communications technology. Media such as radio, schools and who want to accelerate their graduation, so take a few television, video, multi media, and other media have been used other subjects through e-Learning, and that can not be forced to and can help improve the quality of education. Moreover, the leave home because of various considerations (Tucker, 2000). Internet media that has an interactive nature, could be a mass media and interpersonal, and sources of information from various While in the teaching of teachers or instructors to give time, parts of the world, it is possible to be a media education is energy, and effort to prepare students or students in accordance superior to previous generations. Therefore Khoe Yao Tung with instructional objectives. Teacher, students receive. However, (2000) says that after the presence of teachers in the truest sense, those who were taught by teachers or through the computer is not the Internet will be a supplement and complement the teachers' necessarily to learn, because the study requires an amendment to representatives made that represent an important source of the self. learning in the world. Development-based learning e-learning needs to be carefully Owned facilities, the Internet according to Onno W. Purbo designed according to the desired destination. If we agree that e- (1998) at least, there are three things a positive impact in the learning in it, too, including Internet-based learning, the opinions educational use of the Internet are: Haughey (1998) should be considered in the development of e- learning. He thinks there are three possibilities in the development a) Learners can easily take courses anywhere in the world of Internet-based learning system, which is "web courses, web without borders or boundaries of institutions. centric courses and web enhanced course". b) Learners can easily sit on the experts in the field of "Web course" is the use of the Internet for educational interest. purposes, in which students and teachers is completely separate c) Lectures / study can easily be taken in various parts of the and do not need any face to face. All the teaching materials, world without relying on the university / school where the discussion, consultation, assignment, training, exams, and other students learn. In addition, the current library also present a more learning activities delivered entirely over the Internet. In other dynamic Internet and can be used in the entire universe. words, this model uses a remote system. This opinion is almost matched by Budi Rahardjo (2002). "Web centric course" is a unique blend of Internet use According to him, the benefits of the Internet for education is to between learning without face to face (long distance) and face to be access to the source of information, access to a resource, and as face (conventional). Some materials delivered via the Internet, and media cooperation. Access to sources of information as an on-line partly through face to face. Complementary functions. In this library, literature sources, access research results, and access to model teachers can provide clues to the students to learn the lecture material. Access to the resource person communication lesson material through the web that have been made. Students are can be done without having to meet physically. While the Internet also given referrals to find other sources of sites that are relevant.
  4. 4. In face-to-face, students and teachers more discussion about the 3. THE ROLE OF E-LEARNING IN findings of material has been learned through the internet. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT The results of testing the use of learning technologies for STRATEGIES students (with access to websites that refer to the powerpoint view notes and preparation for exams) and learning methods that are relatively more traditional (read the textbook and class notes from Observation of the experts, as has been noted above suggests the book), and the influence of learning strategies on test scores that in the future of education tend to be multidisciplinary, and their presence in the classroom, showing students that ranked integrated network, related to productivity on time, pluralistic, high on the use of technology and traditional learning methods more dialogical / synchronous, more open and accessible and and perform a higher attendance than students who are classified more competitive in nature. In 1989, Bishop G. has predicted that as low in the use of two learning methods that use technology and in the future of education tend to be flexible, open, diverse, traditional learning methods. (Kathleen Debevec, 2006). accessible by anyone who wants to learn without knowing age, gender, previous learning experience, and so on. Model "web enhanced course" is to use the Internet to support learning quality improvement done in the classroom. With the advancement of new communications technologies, Internet function is to provide enrichment and communication delivery models through a lot of multimedia-based line continues between students with teachers, fellow students, members of the to grow as a very powerful tool. The ability to combine text, group, or students with another resource. Therefore the role of diagrams, and pictures with video and voice transmitting teachers in this case are required to master the technique of capability is very supportive of meaningful information and searching for information on the Internet, guiding students to seek technology development that is virtual (virtual), can increase the and find sites relevant to learning materials, presenting the effectiveness of these approaches, even more than that. Many material through the web an attractive and desirable, guidance and students, even though they do not fully understand computers communication service via the internet, and other skills required. expect to ease with the material. Development of e-learning is not merely presenting lesson Internet has tremendous potential for infrastructure along the material on-line only, but must be communicative and interesting. existing phone system with reliable equipment that has been The material is designed as a lesson learned in front of students available, which has encouraged people to realize and has been teachers through a computer screen that is connected through the trained to use. If this is seen as a comprehensive answer to the Internet. To be able to produce e-learning an attractive and problems of mass education, the fact that there is such a desirable, Onno W. Purbo (2002) requires three things that must frequently ignored. But will be very meaningful when viewed as a be fulfilled in designing e-learning, which is "simple, personal, system diterpkan gradual and cumulative, where infrastructure is and quick". A simple system will allow students to utilize already available is used for the needs of a clear and specific. technology and the existing menu, with the convenience provided Rosenberg (2008) stresses that e-learning refers to the use of to the panel, will reduce the introduction of e-learning system Internet technology to deliver a series of solutions that can itself, so that participants can study time diefisienkan to the improve the knowledge and skills. Even Onno W. Purbo (2002) learning process itself and not on learning to use the system e - explains that the term "e" or an abbreviation of electronic e- learning it. learning is used as a term for any technology used to support the Conditions personal means teachers can interact as well as a efforts of teaching through the Internet electronic technology. teacher communicate with students in front of the class. With the In more detail Rosenberg (2008) categorizes three basic approach and a more personal interaction, learners' progress note, criteria contained in e-learning, namely: and helped so many problems it faces. This will make students feel at home for long in front of his computer screen. a) E-learning is a network, which allows him to improve quickly, save or bring back, distributing, and sharing of learning Then this service is supported with speed, quick response to and information. This requirement is essential in e-learning, so complaints and needs of other learners. Thus the improvement of that Rosenberg called it an absolute requirement. learning can be done as soon as possible by a teacher or manager. b) E-learning is delivered to users through a computer using In summary, e-learning should be created as if the students learn standard Internet technology. CD ROM, Web TV, Web Cell in the conventional manner, only moved into the digital system Phones, Pagers, and aids other personal digital although learning over the Internet. Therefore e-learning needs to adapt elements of can prepare messages but can not be classified as e-learning. common practice in conventional learning systems. For instance starting from the formulation of operational objectives and c) E-learning is focused on the views of the most extensive measurable, there is a perception or a pre test, motivational, learning, learning solutions menggungguli traditional paradigm in communicative use of language, a clear description of the training. material, concrete examples, problem solving, question and answer, discussion, post test, to assignments and activities follow- up. Therefore, designing e-learning should involve stakeholders, The discussion above shows that as the basis of e-learning is including: teachers, materials specialists, communications the use of Internet technology. e-learning is a conventional form specialists, programmers, artists, and so on. of learning which poured in digital format via the internet technology. Therefore e-learning can be used in distance education systems and conventional education systems. In conventional education e-learning function is not to replace, but
  5. 5. rather reinforce conventional learning models. In this case Cisco Future paradigms in the overall trend (Roll, R. 1997) is a (2007) explains the philosophical e-learning as follows: multimedia market forces. Strong impact of the birth of globalization will result in a change in management strategy of a) E-learning is the delivery of information, communication, education and training. For that requires knowledge of education education, training of on-line. and learning methods are new. The structure of vocational skills b) E-learning provides a set of tools that can enrich the value and knowledge to support changing lifelong learning and of learning in the conventional (conventional learning models, the continuous learning that serves to prepare workers to meet the study of text books, CD-ROMs, and computer-based training) in demands or industry interests. order to answer the challenges of globalization development. Underlined the need to roll from the statement is "high technology c) E-learning is not meant to replace conventional learning should be to reach the unreachable, and the precision of high models in the classroom, but to strengthen the model of learning technology is when the infrastructure used wisely. In such through content enrichment and development of educational circumstances, distance learning and open education / distance technology. will be a pioneer into the new decade ". The capacity of students vary greatly depending on the form and content delivery. The better alignment between the transmitter device conten and learning style, it would be better student 4. E-LEARNING POLICY IN HIGHER capacity, which in turn will give better results. EDUCATION MANAGEMENT Teachers or instructors can assign students to work in groups STRATEGY to develop and present assignments. Students who worked on the task of this group can work together through the homepage or web 4.1 Public Policy Process facilities. In addition, students themselves can contribute to each According to Hoogerwerf (2008, 66) in terms of policy is other individually or through group discussions using e-mail essentially a kind of answer to a problem, an attempt to solve, (Website kudos, 2002). reduce, prevent a problem with a particular way, namely by a directed action. James E. Anderson (2008, 33), gives the Concord Consortium (2006) ( formulation of policy as the behavior of a number of actors suggests that the experience of learning through electronic media (officials, groups, government agencies) or a series of actors in a enriched when students may feel that they each are part of a particular field of activity. community of learners, who are in a shared environment . By developing a community and live in it, students become no longer From some understanding of the policies that have been put feel isolated in the electronic media. In fact, they worked together forward by the scientists, presumably it can be concluded that, in shoulder to shoulder to support each other for the success of the fact, a study of the policy (policy) covers the question: what, why, group. who, where, and how. All questions concerning the problems faced by institutions that make decisions affecting; contents, way Further stated that in the e-learning activities, teachers and or procedure prescribed, the strategy, when the decision was taken participants learn to express that they are just more familiar with and implemented. In addition to conclusions about policy terms is, each other. The study participants themselves admit that they are at present the policy term more often and widely used in relation more familiar with the teachers who nurture their learning through to the actions of government and state behavior in general e-Learning activities. In addition, the teachers e-Learning is also (Charles O. Jones, 2007, 166) active in the conversation (communication) with parents of learners via phone and email because these parents are partners in From this definition, the public policy which covers all e-Learning activities. Similarly, communication among the things revealed and done or not done by the government. Besides participants of e-Learning. public policy are also the policies developed / produced by agencies and government officials (James E. Anderson, 1979:3). Understanding the implications of this view is that public policy: Basically the way of delivery or the way the provision a. For an act that led to goals rather than as behaviors or (delivery system) of e-learning, can be classified into two, actions that happened; namely: b. Essentially consists of actions related to each other; 1. One way communication; and c. Concerned with what is actually done by the government 2. Two way communication. in a particular field or even what the government is mean Communication or interaction between teachers and students or do something or says to do something; are better two-way through the system. In the e-learning, two-way d. Can be positive, which means is some form of action system can also be classified into two, namely: (step) government on certain issues, and is negative, 1. Implemented through the direct (synchronous). This meaning a government decision to not do something; means that when the instructor gives lessons, students can e. Public policy, at least in a positive sense based or always directly listen; and premised on the rules / laws that are forced. 2. Conducted indirectly (a-synchronous). For example a In a study of public policy, policy implementation needs to message from the instructor recorded before use. be done that has to do with the explanation of the mechanism of political decisions into routine procedures through bureaucratic
  6. 6. channels, the problem of conflict, decisions, and who gets what the assessment standard basis of whether the from a policy. It is not too wrong to say that the implementation intervention measures can be called a "failed" or of the policy is a very important aspect in the overall policy "successful". process. 3) Formulation of the model. A very simple understanding of policy implementation is as expressed by the Charles O. Jones (2007), where implementation Several alternative intervention policies set forth in the is defined as "getting the job done" and "doing it". But behind the form of causal relationship between the problems faced simplicity of this formula means that the implementation of the by the organization and formulated simple. Causality is policy is a policy process that can be done easily. But its referred to as a model. It could be a model flowchart implementation, according to Jones, a condition which requires (flow chart) and arrow diagram (arrow chart). Goals among other things: the person or the executor, money and compilation model is intended to facilitate analysis of organizational capabilities or resources is often referred to, further policy alternatives and selecting interventions which implementation of constraints defining Jones as the process of should be chosen. receiving additional resources, so that they can consider what to 4) Formulation of policy alternatives. do. Policy alternatives are a number of tools and techniques It is stated based on the fact that this implementation process used to achieve goals and objectives that have been will be influenced by the dimensions of such a policy. In the sense determined either directly or not. Alternative that most implementations will be successful if the desired formulation begins with the description logic framework changes relatively little, while the consensus of purpose, associated with the various possibilities that arise in the especially from those who operate the program in the field, is framework of the intervention problem. The possibility relatively high. From the description above, it is understood that that impact both positive and negative. After the the successful implementation of the policy is strongly influenced alternatives are identified, it was time to choose the by variables or bernagai on gilrannya factors will affect the alternative most likely to achieve goals and objectives successful implementation of the policy itself. set before. That's needed for Policy Analysis E-learning in Higher 5) Determination of alternative policy selection criteria. Education that it needs to be done a study to review these policies. Criteria and parameters that can be used to choose Knowing how well the chosen policy can help achieve goals and among policy alternatives are a) technical feasibility, to see if there are other impacts that may be caused by the policy. which emphasizes the aspects of the effectiveness of And also to find out what the problem is to be completed by the intervention measures in achieving objectives and government, how far the success rate in solving policy problems targets; b) economic and financial feasibility, which (achieving goals), and whether such policies lead to other effects emphasizes the efficiency aspects of the costs and that are not desirable, is not considered before, or who is a threat benefits obtained by using engineering cost and benefit to the government's risk. analysis; c) the political viability, which saw the William N. Dunn (2008) argued that policy analysis is an political impact of the resulting accessibility applied social science discipline which uses a variety of research (acceptability), compatibility with community values methods and arguments to generate and transfer relevant (appropriateness), responsiveness (responsiveness), information to the policy, which can be used at political level in compliance with legislation (legal suitability), as well as order to solve policy problems. Weimer and Vining, (1998:1): equity (equity) ; d) Operability of the administrative "The product of policy analysis is advice. Specifically, it is some view of the dimensions of authority implementing advice that inform public policy decision ". So public policy agency, institutional commitment, capability of staff and analysis, advice or more a consideration of public policy makers funding and support organization. is about the problems faced, a task that must be performed by 6) Assessment of policy alternatives. public organizations related to these issues, as well as various policy alternatives that might be taken with a variety of Through this assessment will be found alternative assessment based on policy objectives. interventions are most effective, efficient, and visible in solving problems. Therefore, the chosen alternative Having formulated a policy issue, it is now time to look for interventions are not necessarily the most effective in solution to the problem of what public policy will be taken. In the achieving goals and objectives, the most efficient in cost policy design process there are seven stages as follows: and benefit side, the most acceptable by the 1) Stage assessment issues. stakeholders, and as an institution can be implemented and meet the administrative requirements. Also consider This phase aims to discover and understand the nature the ethical and philosophical aspects of that alternative of the problems encountered have been identified by the does not violate social values prevailing in society. organization; formulate problems facing the organization; and demonstrating a causal relationship of 7) Formulation of policy recommendations. the problems identified. Policy recommendations are made based on several 2) Setting goals and policy objectives. scores of alternative interventions, which are considered visible alternatives to achieve goals and objectives, the Setting goals and targets as necessary policy guidelines optimal cost with maximum profit, accepted by all in the formulation of alternative interventions, as well as stakeholders and in accordance with the ethics and
  7. 7. values prevailing in society and legislation, and the of higher education unit conducted through competitive grant institution can be accomplished. On the other hand, programs run by governments, such as competitive grant alternative interventions are also considered more programs, partnership programs, research grants, education comprehensive, holistic, integrative and prospective development center and instructional activities (P3AI). before selected. After that, an alternative set of Management capacity building will also be supported by the interventions recommended and approved that has the application of Information and Communication Technology force of law. (ICT), such as the development of higher education information system ". The operational e-learning policies set forth in the accreditation 4.2 E-learning policy in the Current Higher document (BOOK IIIB) point 6.4.1 (Information Systems) as Education follows: "Describe the management information systems and facilities of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) Policies regarding e-learning in the Education Strategic Plan used the Faculty / School for the academic administration and of the Ministry of Education (EDUCATION) 2009-2014 as part administration (eg SIAKAD, SIMKEU, SIMAWA, SIMFA, of Quality, Relevance and Competitiveness stated as follows: SIMPEG and the like), including distance / e-learning. Explain "Considering the rapid growth of the use of ICT in various sectors utilization in decision-making processes in the development of of life, the government will continue to develop the use of ICT for institutions. "In Book VI - ACCREDITATION ASSESSMENT school information systems and learning including the INSTRUMENTS FOR GRADUATE PROGRAM STUDY also development of electronic learning (e-learning). Until 2009, the described in detail the policy" Access and utilization of steps to be taken are (a) designing a network system that includes information systems in managing data and information on the the Internet network, which connects schools with data centers implementation of academic programs in the course of study ", and applications, and intranet networks and the media as a means including e -learning, which can be seen in the following table: of communication, and internal information the school; (b) design and create database applications, which store and process data and school information, school management, learning content (c) to design and create a portal-based learning applications, web, interactive multimedia, which consists of tutorial applications and learning tools; (d ) optimize the utilization of educational television as an enrichment of material in order to support the improvement of education quality, and (e) implement the use of ICT in stages to facilitate the management of junior high school education and at the same time to support the learning process in all parts of Indonesia ". In other parts also mentioned the efforts that have been made as follows: "Considering the rapid growth of the use of ICT in various sectors of life, the government will continue to use ICT to develop information systems of schooling and learning including e-Learning development. Until 2009, the steps to be taken are (a) to design and create database applications, which store and process data and school information, school management, load (content) learning; (b) to design and create a portal-based learning applications, web , interactive 4.3 Policy Proposal E-learning in Higher multimedia, which consists of tutorial applications and learning tools; (c) optimize the utilization of educational television as an Education Future enrichment of material in order to support the improvement of Utilization of the Internet for learning or e-learning is also education quality, and (d) implement the use of ICT in stages to not free from shortcomings. Various critics (Bullen, 2001, Beam, facilitate the management of high school education and vocational 1997), among others, can be stated as follows: as well as for support the learning process in all parts of Indonesia. " a) Lack of interaction between teachers and students or even among the students themselves. Lack of this interaction could slow the formation of values in the process of Especially for college, e-learning policies in accordance learning and teaching; Education Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education b) The tendency to ignore aspects of the academic or social (EDUCATION) 2009-2014 is: "Development of distance learning aspects and instead encouraging the growth of the (distance learning) in college, with pilot projects in several business / commercial; universities and training centers until the year 2009, the ITB, ITS, UGM, IPB, UI, Melayu, UNDANA, UNHAS, PENS, and c) The process of learning and teaching tend toward training POLMAL. Dissemination of this project will be developed in than education; UNLAM, UM, UNY, UNP, UNHALU, UNCEN and PT-PT d) The changing role of teachers from the original master others. "While the target set is:" ICT literacy (ability to access, conventional learning techniques, are now also required to utilize and use the radio, television, computers and the Internet) know the learning techniques that use ICT; 80% for the students and faculty "with Strengthening Governance, Accountability, and Public Image in the field:" Enhanced capacity
  8. 8. e) Students who do not have a high learning motivation tended to fail; Meanwhile, "Policy Analysis Framework" for the policy hierarchy f) Not all the available internet facilities (this may be related can use the following models: to the problem of availability of electricity, telephone or computer); Policy Area Description From the above situation, authors suggest policy of Future E- learning in Higher Education can be use framework of the Gellman-Danley and Fetzner (1998) as follows: Rewards (e.g., stipends, promotion and tenure, merit increases, etc.); Support (e.g., Faculty (including student help, technical assistance, training, Continuing etc.); Opportunities to learn about Policy Area Key Issues Education and technology and new applications (e.g., Cooperative release time, training, etc.); Intellectual Extension) Calendar, Course integrity, Transferability, property (e.g. ownership of materials, Transcripts, Student/Course evaluation, copyright, etc.) Admission standards, Curriculum/Course Academic approval, Accreditation, Class cancellations , Support (e.g., access to technology, library Course/Program/Degree availability, resources, registration, advising, financial Recruiting/Marketing aid, etc.); Requirements and records (e.g., Students/Participants residency requirements, acceptance of Tuition rate, Technology fee, FTE’s, courses from other places, transfer of credit, Governance / Administration cost, State fiscal regulations, continuing education, etc.) Administration Tuition disbursement, Space, Single versus / Fiscal multiple board oversight, Staffing Tuition and fee structure; Funding formula; Collaboration (e.g., with other Departments, units, institutions, consortia, intra-and inter- Compensation and workload, Development institutional, service areas, etc.); Resources incentives, Faculty training, Congruence with (e.g., financial resources to support distance Faculty Management and existing union contracts, Class monitoring, education, equipment, new technologies, Organization Faculty support, Faculty evaluation etc.); Curricula/individual courses (e.g., delivery modes, course/program selection, plans to develop, individual sequences, Intellectual property, Faculty, Student and course development, entire program Legal delivery, interactivity requirements, test institutional liability requirements, contact hour definitions, etc.) Advisement, Counseling, Library access, Student 5. CONCLUSION Materials delivery, Student training, Test Support proctoring, Videotaping, Computer accounts, E-Learning will be used or not depends on government Services Registration, Financial aid, Labs policy in education and how users view or assess the e-learning. But generally the use of these technologies depends on: (1). Is the technology was already a requirement?, (2). Is adequate Systems reliability, Connectivity/access, supporting facilities?, (3). Is supported by adequate funding?, and Hardware/software, Setup concerns, (4). Is there support from policy makers? Technical Infrastructure, Technical support (staffing), Many people often try to launch e-learning without careful Scheduling, Costs consideration and use it to look prestigious without Management Policy and Strategy Education obvious. Therefore one thing to note before using the Internet for learning, the policy analysis to Adoption of innovations, Acceptance of on- answer whether it requires e-learning. In this analysis would have line/distance teaching, Understanding of distance included whether it is technically and non-technical e-learning can Cultural be carried out this analysis regarding the availability of hard-ware, education (what works at a distance), especially the computer (with his network), electricity, phone and Organizational values its software; especially the availability of personnel, teaching materials are prepared in -online-right and the "course management tools" that will be used. Also, is economically
  9. 9. beneficial use of this Internet (Economically profitable). [12] Rahardjo, Budi. (2001). Information turmoil in Indonesia Economic analysis such as Cost Benefit (B / C) ratio, the Internal will be in vain?. Tempo Magazine article. Jakarta: November Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV) or Return on 2001. Investment (ROI) can be used as a measuring tool. Furthermore [13] Romiszowski, Alexander J. and Robin Mason. (1996) whether socially, the use of e-learning must be accepted by the Computer Mediated Communication in Handbook of community (socially acceptable). Because sometimes, although Research for Educational Communications Technology. New the usage of e-learning for learning has been prepared properly York: AECT, Macmillan Library Reference USA. and operate quality is also good, people can not accept it because they consider the ways of conventional education is considered [14] Roll Reider (1997) SEAMOLEC_IDLN Regional better. 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  11. 11. Djadja Achmad Sardjana: Lecture at Informatics Department, Engineering Faculty of Widyatama University ( and Doctoral Candidate of Post Graduate School, Indonesia Education University (