Near field communication


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Near field communication

  1. 1. SHRI VAISHANAV INSTITUTE OF TECNOLOGY AND SCIENCE Near field communication Submitted By: DIVYA SOLANKI DEEPIKA GUPTA Submitted To: Ms. Rashmi Gome
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • History • Evolution • Essential Specification • Comparison • Overviews of the process • Operation of NFC • Applications • Advantages and disadvantages • Future of NFC • Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartsphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimetres. Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi. • NFC is a short-range wireless technology. • NFC provides unique advantages over other available wireless technologies. • The design includes a near-field transmitter and receiver to send data from one computer to another
  4. 4. • NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices. • NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification or RFID technology. • RFID is mainly used for tracking and identification by sending radio waves. • Enables the exchange of data between devices over a distance of up to 20 centimeters.(4 cm Practically)
  5. 5. HISTORY • 1983 The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton. • 2004 Nokia, Philips and Sony established the Near Field Communication (NFC) Forum • 2006 Initial specifications for NFC Tags • 2006 Nokia 6131 was the first NFC phone • 2009 In January, NFC Forum released Peer-to-Peer standards to transfer contact, URL, initiate Bluetooth, etc. • 2010 Samsung Nexus S: First Android NFC phone shown • 2011 Google I/O "How to NFC" demonstrates NFC to initiate a game and to share a contact, URL, app, video, etc. • 2011 NFC support becomes part of the Symbian mobile operating system with the release of Symbian Anna version. • 2011 RIM is the first company for its devices is certified by MasterCard Worldwide, the functionality of PayPass
  6. 6. EVOLUTION • In 2004, NFC Forum was formed by Nokia, Philips, Sony,to set standards for NFC . Every NFC enabled device will have “N- Mark” trademark ,developed by NFC Forum. • First mobile phone( nokia 6131) with NFC released by NOKIA. N MARK TRADEMARK NOKIA 6131
  7. 7. • In 2010 First android phone SAMSUNG NEXUS S with NFC support released.
  8. 8. ESSENTIAL SPECIFICATIONS • NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less. • NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 424 Kbit/s. • Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 kbit/s • NFC employs two different codlings to transfer data. If an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used. In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a modulation ratio of 10%.
  10. 10. Overview of the process…. • Transmitter • PC interface (MAX232A) • Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (POS+25) • Power Amplifier (LM6181) • Loop Antenna • Receiver • Loop Antenna • Amplifier (LM6181) • Phase Lock Loop (NE564) • PC interface (MAX232A)
  11. 11. Eventual process (Diagram)
  12. 12. Modulation/Demodulation • VCO produces a frequency-modulated signal at the transmitter • Phase lock loop demodulates the signal at the receiver.
  13. 13. PC Interface 5 4 3 2 1 9 7 6 8 Serial Port VCC 0.1uF 0.1uF 0.1uF 0.1uF 0.1uF 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 16 15 14 13 9 10 11 12 MAX232A T1 Out C2+ C1+ T1 InV- C2- V+ Gnd VCC R1 In T2 InT2 Out C1- R2 OutR2 In R1 Out 2K 220 180 180 180180 V- V+ HA17741 3.7V •Connects through serial cable •Received by MAX232A •0 to 5V square wave •Voltage divider •Non-inverting voltage adder
  14. 14. Voltage Controlled Oscillator • Operates on a 12-V power supply • Accepts an input from 3.7V to 4.2V from the PC interface. • Outputs a signal whose frequency varies according to the input voltage level VCO OUTPUT
  15. 15. Power Amplifier • Accepts an input from the VCO • Outputs the signal to the loop antenna • Power gain of approximately 11dB AMPLIFIER INPUT/OUTPUT
  16. 16. Phase Lock Loop • Tracks the frequency and phase of the input • Frequency of an signal changes according to the data bits; therefore, PLL can demodulate an FSK signal. • Output is the VCO control voltage.
  17. 17. Band Pass Filters Vin - + Vout +Supply -Supply •Pass-band of 2-3MHz •Tuned to 10MHz and 13.5MHz •Signal did not decay fast enough outside of the pass-band
  18. 18. OPERATION OF NFC • Near field communication is based on inductive- coupling. • NFC works using magnetic induction between two loop antennas located within each other's 'near field’.
  19. 19. HOW IT WORKS • In the reader (phone) , when the NFC in the device is active then it continuously generates periodic sine wave signal at frequency 13.56 MHz center frequency. • tag gets energy from the magnetic fluxes and create counter frequency • The changes are detected by the phone and phone knows that there is a tag nearby. • RFID systems communicating on very short range are commonly known as close couple systems. • Range 0 to 1 cm.
  20. 20. • This means that the tag has to be placed either in the reader or more or less pressed against the reader device. • The benefit from these short distances is that a rather large amount of energy can be extracted from the magnetic field by the tag. • Close coupling is also preferred for systems with high security requirements.
  22. 22. ACTIVE MODE • Both initiator and target device communicate by alternately generating their own fields. A device deactivates its RF field while it is waiting for data. In this mode, both devices typically have power supplies.
  23. 23. PASSIVE MODE • The initiator device provides a carrier fields and the target device answers by modulating the existing field. In this mode, the target device may draw its operating power from the initiator-provided electromagnetic field.
  25. 25. CARD EMULATION MODE • The NFC device behaves as a contactless smart card. • The external card reader accesses the secure elements of the device, such as Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) and embedded Secure Element (eSE), that are compatible with the contactless card technology. • This enables contactless payments and ticketing by NFC enabled phones without changing the existing infrastructure. Mobile payment, ticketing access control etc are use case of this category.
  26. 26. PEER TO PEER MODE • In this mode two NFC enabled devices can exchange data with each other. • Both devices take part in the communication. • One example could be business card exchange. • Another example could be pairing Bluetooth headset with the help of NFC enabled phone. • Third example could be NFC chat application where two phones can take part in data exchange as specified by NFC forum.
  27. 27. READER WRITER MODE • In this use case, NFC enabled device (for example mobile phones) can read or write data to NFC tag. • NFC enabled smart poster is one example. Inside the poster there is embedded NFC tag where more information is written about the product. • Device and read and act accordingly what is written in the tag.
  28. 28. APPLICATIONS • Commerce: NFC devices can be used in contactless payment systems, similar to those currently used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards, and allow mobile payment to replace or supplement these systems. • Social networking: Sharing contacts, photos, videos or files , and entering multiplayer mobile games in the field of social networking it is very useful to exchange the contacts & other files. • Smartphone automation and NFC tags : Smart phones equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC tags or stickers which can be programmed by NFC apps to automate tasks.
  29. 29. ANDROID BEAM • Android Beam is a feature of the Android mobile operating system to allow data to be transferred via near field communication (NFC) . • It allows the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos, and other data. Android Beam was introduced in Android version 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
  30. 30. GOOGLE WALLET • Google Wallet is a mobile payment system developed by Google that allows its users to store debit cards, credit cards, loyalty cards, and gift cards among other things, as well as redeeming sales promotions on their mobile phone. • Google Wallet can use near field communication (NFC) to "make secure payments fast and convenient by simply tapping the phone on any PayPass-enabled terminal at checkout.“
  31. 31. SECURIT Y ASPECTS • Eavesdropping: The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can be picked up with antennas. The distance from which an attacker is able to eavesdrop the RF signal depends on numerous parameters, but is typically a small number of meters. • Data modification: It is easy to destroy data by using a jammer. There is no way currently to prevent such an attack. • Lost property: Losing the NFC RFID card or the mobile phone will open access to any finder and act as a single-factor authenticating entity. Mobile phones protected by a PIN code acts as a single authenticating factor.
  32. 32. ADVANTAGES • High convenience to the user, because the data exchange is done by bringing two mobiles together. • Versatility • Reduces cost of electronic issuance . • Secure communication. • No special software. • No search and pair procedure.
  33. 33. DISADVANTAGES • The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices under a short range i.e around 10 cm. • The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps. • Can be costly for merchant companies to initially adopt the technology.
  34. 34. FUTURE OF NFC • New generations of iPhone, iPod and iPad products would reportedly be equipped with NFC capability which would enable small-scale monetary transactions. • On May 2, 2011, RIM announced the Blackberry Bold 9900, a new device that will use NFC technology. • Recently, Microsoft announced that all Windows Phone 8 devices will make use of the NFC technology.
  35. 35. CONCLUSION • Mobile handsets are the primary target for NFC and soon NFC will be implemented in most handheld devices. Even though NFC have the shortest range among radio frequency technologies, combining them with existing technologies like Bluetooth or Infrared can increase its range of applications.