SHRI VAISHANAV INSTITUTE OF
TECNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
Near field communication
Ms. Rashmi Gome
• Essential Specification
• Overviews of the process
• Operation of NFC
• Advantages and disadvantages
• Future of NFC
• Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards
for smartsphones and similar devices to establish
radio communication with each other by touching them
together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no
more than a few centimetres. Present and anticipated
applications include contactless transactions, data
exchange, and simplified setup of more complex
communications such as Wi-Fi.
• NFC is a short-range wireless technology.
• NFC provides unique advantages over other available
• The design includes a near-field transmitter and receiver to
send data from one computer to another
• NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld
• NFC is an extension of Radio frequency
identification or RFID technology.
• RFID is mainly used for tracking and
identification by sending radio waves.
• Enables the exchange of data between devices
over a distance of up to 20 centimeters.(4 cm
• 1983 The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was
granted to Charles Walton.
• 2004 Nokia, Philips and Sony established the Near Field Communication
• 2006 Initial specifications for NFC Tags
• 2006 Nokia 6131 was the first NFC phone
• 2009 In January, NFC Forum released Peer-to-Peer standards to transfer
contact, URL, initiate Bluetooth, etc.
• 2010 Samsung Nexus S: First Android NFC phone shown
• 2011 Google I/O "How to NFC" demonstrates NFC to initiate a game and to
share a contact, URL, app, video, etc.
• 2011 NFC support becomes part of the Symbian mobile operating
system with the release of Symbian Anna version.
• 2011 RIM is the first company for its devices is certified by MasterCard
Worldwide, the functionality of PayPass
• In 2004, NFC Forum was formed by Nokia, Philips, Sony,to set
standards for NFC . Every NFC enabled device will have “N-
Mark” trademark ,developed by NFC Forum.
• First mobile phone( nokia 6131) with NFC released by NOKIA.
N MARK TRADEMARK
• In 2010
First android phone SAMSUNG NEXUS S with NFC support
• NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies,
typically requiring a distance of 4 cm or less.
• NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air
interface and at rates ranging from 106 Kbit/s to 424
• Supported data rates: 106, 212 or 424 kbit/s
• NFC employs two different codlings to transfer data. If
an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a
modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used.
In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a
modulation ratio of 10%.
• VCO produces a frequency-modulated signal at the
• Phase lock loop demodulates the signal at the receiver.
T2 InT2 Out
R2 OutR2 In
•Connects through serial cable
•Received by MAX232A
•0 to 5V square wave
•Non-inverting voltage adder
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
• Operates on a 12-V power supply
• Accepts an input from 3.7V to 4.2V from the PC interface.
• Outputs a signal whose frequency varies according to the
input voltage level
• Accepts an input from the VCO
• Outputs the signal to the loop antenna
• Power gain of approximately 11dB
Phase Lock Loop
• Tracks the frequency and phase of the input
• Frequency of an signal changes according to the data
bits; therefore, PLL can demodulate an FSK signal.
• Output is the VCO control voltage.
Band Pass Filters
•Pass-band of 2-3MHz
•Tuned to 10MHz and 13.5MHz
•Signal did not decay fast enough
outside of the pass-band
OPERATION OF NFC
• Near field communication is based on inductive-
• NFC works using magnetic induction between two
loop antennas located within each other's 'near
HOW IT WORKS
• In the reader (phone) , when the NFC in the device is active
then it continuously generates periodic sine wave signal at
frequency 13.56 MHz center frequency.
• tag gets energy from the magnetic fluxes and create counter
• The changes are detected by the phone and phone knows
that there is a tag nearby.
• RFID systems communicating on very short range are
commonly known as close couple systems.
• Range 0 to 1 cm.
• This means that the tag has to be placed either in the reader
or more or less pressed against the reader device.
• The benefit from these short distances is that a rather large
amount of energy can be extracted from the magnetic field by
• Close coupling is also preferred for systems with high security
• Both initiator and target device communicate by alternately
generating their own fields. A device deactivates its RF field
while it is waiting for data. In this mode, both devices typically
have power supplies.
• The initiator device provides a carrier fields and the target
device answers by modulating the existing field. In this mode,
the target device may draw its operating power from the
initiator-provided electromagnetic field.
CARD EMULATION MODE
• The NFC device behaves as a contactless smart card.
• The external card reader accesses the secure
elements of the device, such as Universal Subscriber
Identity Module (USIM) and embedded Secure
Element (eSE), that are compatible with the
contactless card technology.
• This enables contactless payments and ticketing by
NFC enabled phones without changing the existing
infrastructure. Mobile payment, ticketing access
control etc are use case of this category.
PEER TO PEER MODE
• In this mode two NFC enabled devices can exchange data with
• Both devices take part in the communication.
• One example could be business card exchange.
• Another example could be pairing Bluetooth headset with the
help of NFC enabled phone.
• Third example could be NFC chat application where two
phones can take part in data exchange as specified by NFC
READER WRITER MODE
• In this use case, NFC enabled device (for example mobile
phones) can read or write data to NFC tag.
• NFC enabled smart poster is one example. Inside the poster
there is embedded NFC tag where more information is written
about the product.
• Device and read and act accordingly what is written in the tag.
• Commerce: NFC devices can be used in contactless payment
systems, similar to those currently used in credit cards and
electronic ticket smartcards, and allow mobile payment to
replace or supplement these systems.
• Social networking: Sharing contacts, photos, videos or files ,
and entering multiplayer mobile games in the field of social
networking it is very useful to exchange the contacts & other
• Smartphone automation and NFC tags : Smart phones
equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC tags or stickers
which can be programmed by NFC apps to automate tasks.
• Android Beam is a feature of the Android mobile operating
system to allow data to be transferred via near field
communication (NFC) .
• It allows the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks,
contact info, directions, YouTube videos, and other data.
Android Beam was introduced in Android version 4.0 (Ice
• Google Wallet is a mobile payment system developed by
Google that allows its users to store debit cards, credit cards,
loyalty cards, and gift cards among other things, as well as
redeeming sales promotions on their mobile phone.
• Google Wallet can use near field communication (NFC) to
"make secure payments fast and convenient by simply tapping
the phone on any PayPass-enabled terminal at checkout.“
SECURIT Y ASPECTS
• Eavesdropping: The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can
be picked up with antennas. The distance from which an
attacker is able to eavesdrop the RF signal depends on
numerous parameters, but is typically a small number of
• Data modification: It is easy to destroy data by using a
jammer. There is no way currently to prevent such an attack.
• Lost property: Losing the NFC RFID card or the mobile phone
will open access to any finder and act as a single-factor
authenticating entity. Mobile phones protected by a PIN code
acts as a single authenticating factor.
• High convenience to the user, because the
data exchange is done by bringing two
• Reduces cost of electronic issuance .
• Secure communication.
• No special software.
• No search and pair procedure.
• The system has the limitation that it can be operated
only with devices under a short range i.e around 10
• The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps,
212 kbps and 424kbps.
• Can be costly for merchant companies to initially
adopt the technology.
FUTURE OF NFC
• New generations of iPhone, iPod and iPad
products would reportedly be equipped with NFC
capability which would enable small-scale
• On May 2, 2011, RIM announced the Blackberry
Bold 9900, a new device that will use NFC
• Recently, Microsoft announced that all Windows
Phone 8 devices will make use of the NFC
• Mobile handsets are the primary target for NFC and
soon NFC will be implemented in most handheld
devices. Even though NFC have the shortest range
among radio frequency technologies, combining
them with existing technologies like Bluetooth or
Infrared can increase its range of applications.