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Sweets

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A brief discription of indian sweets.

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Sweets

  1. 1. -A work by Divyansh Khare
  2. 2.  Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes. Other compounds may alter perception of sweetness itself.  The chemosensory basis for detecting sweetness, which varies among both individuals and species, has only been teased apart in recent years. A recent theoretical model of sweetness is the multipoint attachment theory, which involves multiple binding sites between a sweetness receptor and a sweet substance.  Studies indicate that responsiveness to sugars and sweetness has very ancient evolutionary beginnings, being manifest as chemotaxis even in motile bacteria such as E. coli. Newborn human infants also demonstrate preferences for high sugar concentrations and prefer solutions that are sweeter than lactose, the sugar found in breast milk. Sweetness appears to have the highest taste recognition threshold, being detectable at around 1 part in 200 of sucrose in solution. By comparison, bitterness appears to have the lowest detection threshold, at about 1 part in 2 million for quinine in solution. In the natural settings that human primate ancestors evolved in, sweetness intensity should indicate energy density, while bitterness tends to indicate toxicity The high sweetness detection threshold and low bitterness detection threshold would have predisposed our primate ancestors to seek out sweet-tasting (and energy-dense) foods and avoid bitter-tasting foods. Even amongst leaf-eating primates, there is a tendency to prefer immature leaves, which tend to be higher in protein and lower in fibre and poisons than mature leaves. The 'sweet tooth' thus has an ancient evolutionary heritage, and while food processing has changed consumption patterns, human physiology remains largely unchanged.
  3. 3.  South Asian Sweets are a unique type of confectionery in Indian, Pakistani and other South Asian cuisines. The Hindi-Urdu word used to refer to sweets and confectionary is mithai. South Asian sweets are made with sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern part of India, for example, milk is a staple, and most sweets from this region are based on milk products. Mithai are commonly served during an auspicious occasion such as the birth of a child or the acquisition of a new job.
  4. 4. ANARSA  Anarsa is a pastry-like snack commonly associated with the Hindu festival of Diwali in Central and Northern India. Its ingredients include jaggery(unrefined cane sugar), rice, poppy seed and ghee (clarified butter). Anarsas are made from soaked powdered rice, jaggery or sugar. The rice is soaked in water for 3 days, with the water changed daily to mitigate fermentation. The rice is then dried, retaining a minimal amount of moisture, and ground into a fine powder. This is known as the pithi, and is mixed with an equal amount of sugar. This mix can be stored for a long time at room temperature as long as it is sealed in an airtight container to prevent the moisture from soaking the sugar further. Whenever Anarsas are to be prepared, mash half inch piece of banana and mix into the previously prepared dough-balls. The banana ensures the sugar dissolves so be careful not to mix too much of banana. The resultant dough should be very soft yet retain shape. Small flat discs with about 2 inches in diameter are created by flattening a small ball of the dough over a layer of poppy seeds - just on one side. These disks are fried with poppy coated side first into hot ghee.
  5. 5. BARFI Barfi, sometimes burfi or burfee or borfee, is a sweet confectionary from the Indian subcontinent. Plain barfi is made from condensed milk, cooked with sugar until it solidifies. The many varieties of barfi include besan barfi, kaaju barfi , and pista barfi . The name is derived from the Persian word barf which means "snow", since barfi is similar to ice/snow in appearance, this is why it is served cold. Barfi is often flavored with fruit or nuts and spices such as cardamom or rose water. They are sometimes coated with a thin layer of edible metallic leaf known as vark.They are typically cut into square, diamond, or round shapes. Different types of barfi vary greatly in their color and texture. Though it originated in Persia, barfi was introduced to India and Pakistan during the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. The confection became very popular in South Asia, where it is now commonly served at festivals such as Holi and Diwali.
  6. 6. CHIKKI  Chikki is a traditional ready-to-eat Indian and Pakistani sweet generally made from groundnuts and jaggery.There are several different varieties of chikki in addition to the most common groundnut chikki. Each chikki is named depending upon the ingredients used. Usually, ingredients such as puffed or roasted bengal gram, sesame, puffed rice, beaten rice, and Khobara are used.  In regions of North India, especially Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, this sweetie is called Layyiya Patti, being also very popular in Brazil, where it is known as pé-de-moleque, and in Paraguay, where it is called Ka'í Ladrillo. Some chikkis are made using a combination of these ingredients. Special chikkis are made out of cashews, almonds, and pistachios. Though jaggery is the usual sweetener material, sugar is used as the base in certain types of chikkis. It is a very popular sweet item in both rural and urban South Asia. Some also add glucose to the chikkis, which are usual there. It just started from a single flavor of jaggery and peanuts.
  7. 7. GULAB JAMUN  Gulab jamun, is a popular cheese-based dessert, similar to a dumpling, popular in countries of the Indian Subcontinent such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. In Nepal it is widely known as Lalmohan, served with or without yogurt, and is a popular dessert on all occasions. It is made mainly from milk solids, traditionally from freshly curdled milk. These milks solids, known as khoya in India, are kneaded into a dough, sometimes with a pinch of flour, and then shaped into small balls and deep fried at a low temperature of about 148°C. The balls are then soaked in a light sugar syrup flavored with green cardamom and rosewater, kewra or saffron. These days, gulab jamun mix is also commercially available. Gulab jamun is often served at weddings.  The term gulab jamun comes from Persian, gulab, "rose water" referring to the rosewater-scented syrup, and Hindustani jamun, m., Syzygium jambolanum , a South Asian fruit with a similar size and shape. Gulab Jamun is a dessert common in the countries of the Indian subcontinent. The Persian word Gulab(गुलाब) means rose, as rosewater syrup is often used, although saffron syrup and honey are also common.Jamun may refer to the jambul fruit, which is usually of a similar size to pieces of the dessert.
  8. 8. JALEBI  Jalebi is a sweet popular in countries of the Indian Subcontinent such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, andBangladesh as well as many other countries in the Middle East and North Africa, like Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. It is made by deep-frying a wheat-flour batter in pretzel or circular shapes, which are then soaked in sugar syrup.  The sweets are served warm or cold. They have a somewhat chewy texture with a crystallized sugary exterior coating. Citric acid or lime juice is sometimes added to the syrup, as well as rosewater or other flavours such as kewra water.  Similar sweets are imarti, which is red-orange in color and sweeter in taste, and angoor aana which is grape-green in color; unlike jalebi, these are made from the batter of urad lentil. They are made in North Indian states including Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. A variant chhena jalebi, made with chhena, is popular in parts of Rajasthan, Bengal, and Orissa, though the form can differ significantly from place to place.  In India, Jalebi is served as the Celebration Sweet of India ralupop , ,yaD cilbupeR dna yaD ecnednepednI ekil syadiloh lanoitan gnirud dna ,seitilicaf ecnefed ,seciffo tnemnrevog ni deilppus si ti hcihw no ralupop tsom eht fo eno si ibelaJ ,ylralimiS .snoitasinagro rehto emos ni sehcadaeh rof ydemer a sa desu si tI .natsikaP ni steews dnats ot tfel dna klim gniliob ni decalp si ti erehw ,natsikaP fo strap .gnitae erofeb
  9. 9. KULFI  Kulfi is a popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian Subcontinent. It is often described as "traditional Indian Subcontinent ice-cream". It is popular throughout countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Burma (Myanmar), and even the Middle East. Kulfi is also widely available in Indian restaurants in Europe, East Asia and North America.  Kulfi has similarities to ice cream (as popularly understood) in appearance and taste, but is denser and creamier. It comes in various flavours, including cream , raspberry, rose, mango, cardamom (elaichi), saffron (kesar or zafran), and pistachio, the more traditional flavours, as well as newer variations like apple, orange, strawberry, peanut, and avocado. Unlike Western ice creams, kulfi is not whipped, resulting in a solid, dense frozen dessert similar to traditional custard based ice-cream. Thus, it is sometimes considered a distinct category of frozen dairy-based dessert. Due to its density, kulfi takes a longer time to melt than Western ice-cream.
  10. 10. KHAJA  Khaja is a sweet food of India. Refined wheat flour, sugar and oils are the chief ingredients of khaja.  It is believed that, even 2000 years ago, Khajas were prepared in the southern side of the Gangetic Plains of Bihar. These areas which are home to khaja, once comprised the central part of Maurya and Gupta empires. Presently, Khajas are prepared and sold in the city of Patna, Gaya and several other places across the state of Bihar. Khajas of the Silao and Rajgir are known for their puffiness.  Khajas have travelled to some other parts of India, including Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Khaja of Kakinada is a coastal town of Andhra Pradesh. Where as khaja of Puri is too famous. At first, the batter is of wheat flour, mawa and oil. It is then deep fried until crisp. Then a sugar syrup is made which is known as "pak". The crisp croissants are then soaked in the sugar syrup until they absorb the sugar syrup. In Kakinada, Khaja is dry from outside and full of sugar syrup from inside and is juicy.
  11. 11. KHEER  Kheer is a rice pudding, which is a traditional South Asian sweet dish. It is made by boiling rice or broken wheat with milk and sugar, and flavoured with cardamom, raisins, saffron, cashew nuts, pistachios or almonds. It is typically served during a meal or also consumed alone as a dessert. Kheer is prepared in festivals, temples, and all special occasions. The term Kheer (used in North India) is derived from Sanskrit wordsKsheeram (which means milk). Other terms like Payasa or Payasam (used in South India) or payesh (used in Bengal region) are derived from the Sanskrit word Payas which also means "milk". It is prepared using milk, rice, ghee, sugar/jaggery, Khoya. Some also add a little bit of Heavy Cream to give it more richness in taste. It is often garnished using almonds, cashews, raisins and pistachios.
  12. 12. LADDU  Laddu or Laddoo is a ball-shaped sweet popular in Indian subcontinental countries including India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh as well as regions with immigrants from South Asia such as Hijaz. Laddu is made of flour and sugar with other ingredients that vary by recipe. It is often served at festive or religious occasions. Common flours used for laddu include besan , rava and ground coconut. These are combined with sugar and other flavorings, cooked in ghee and molded into a ball shape. Some laddu recipes are prepared using Ayurvedic medicinal ingredients, including methi laddu, multigrain and resin laddu.  Laddu flour (alternate spelling: ladoo flour, ladu flour) is a coarsely ground whole wheat flour sold particularly in the USA as an ingredient for certain Indian dishes, (in particular for laddu). The ostensible explanation for the purpose of the term is to differentiate it from the many other kinds of wheat flours that are available.
  13. 13. MALAPUA  Malapua is an Indian pancake served as a dessert or a snack. which is also served to Jagannath in his Sakala Dhupa (Morning food served to the lord). It is During Paush Sankranti, Malapuas are prepared in Bengali homes. Malapuas along with mutton curry is served in many non-vegetarian Maithil homes during Holi. In Bangladesh, a malpua is known as shondesh. What is known as "malpua" in West Bengal would be referred to as a type of halwa in Bangladesh. These are regional differences. It is also important to note that "shondesh" means letter in Hindi. Recipes vary between individuals and not necessarily regions.
  14. 14. RASGULLA  Rasgulla is a cheese-based, syrupy sweet dish originally from the Indian state of Orissa. It is popular throughout India and other parts of South Asia.The dish is made from ball shaped dumplings of chhena (an Indian cottage cheese) and semolina dough, cooked in light syrup made of sugar.This is done until the syrup permeates the dumplings. Typically, a 100 gram serving of rasgulla contains 186 calories, out of which about 153 calories are in the form of carbohydrates. It also contains about 1.85 grams of fat and 4 grams of protein.
  15. 15. SANDESH  Sandesh is a sweet made from fine cheese made from cow's milk kneaded with fine ground sugar or molasses. This is a sweet from West Bengal and Orissa. Revered for its delicate making, and appreciated by the connoiseur, this represents sweet making at its finest. Sandesh comes in two varieties, "Norom Pak" (the softer version) and "Koda Pak" (the harder version). The softer version although more gentle and considered better, is fragile. The harder version is robust and often easier for storage. Molases made from dates can be used to make a special variation of Sandesh called "Noleen Gurher Sandesh" (a Sandesh made from "Noleen Gurh" or molases from dates) or simply "Noleen Sandesh" (as shown in the figure).
  16. 16. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU Thank You Thank You

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