Auditng Ppt(2)

20,980 views

Published on

Auditing Risk

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
2 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
20,980
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
17
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
596
Comments
2
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Auditng Ppt(2)

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO AUDITING BY ADITYA VISHWANATHA ANKITA JAIN SJCC
  2. 2. AAS 1 – BASIC PRINCIPLES GOVERNING AN AUDIT <ul><li>Integrity, objectivity, independence </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality (exception- regulatory requirement) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills & Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Work performed by others </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Planning-nature, timing & extent of audit procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Audit evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting system & Internal control </li></ul><ul><li>Audit conclusions & reporting </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>FUNDAMENTAL ACCOUTING ASSUMPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Going concern </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Accrual system </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNTING POLICIES-CONSIDERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence </li></ul><ul><li>Substance over form </li></ul><ul><li>Materiality </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE AUDIT PROCESS- PHASE I <ul><li>Audit Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of the Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of the Audit Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of Appointment </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of Engagement </li></ul>
  5. 5. PHASE II – PLANNING <ul><li>Gathering of Preliminary Information regarding nature of business, flow of activities of the entity </li></ul><ul><li>Broad Planning of the Audit </li></ul>
  6. 6. PHASE II – PLANNING <ul><li>Evaluation of Accounting System and Internal Control </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of Audit Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Framing of Audit Programme </li></ul>
  7. 7. PHASE III – EXECUTION OF AUDIT <ul><li>Compliance Test </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Modification of Audit Programme, if required </li></ul>
  8. 8. PHASE III – EXECUTION OF AUDIT <ul><li>Clarification, Explanation,Conformation </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Financial Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Management Representation </li></ul>
  9. 9. PHASE IV - REPORTING <ul><li>Formulating Audit Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Audit Report </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion with the Management </li></ul><ul><li>Dating of the Audit Report </li></ul><ul><li>Signing of the Audit Report </li></ul>
  10. 10. COMPLIANCE & SUBSTANTIVE PROCEDURES <ul><li>Tests of control </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of design & effectiveness of operation of controls upon which the auditor has placed reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of detail </li></ul><ul><li>(analytical procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Completeness, validity & accuracy of account balances & underlying classes of transaction </li></ul>
  11. 11. DOCUMENTATION <ul><li>Audit programme </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed pan </li></ul><ul><li>Description of work to </li></ul><ul><li>be done </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying procedures </li></ul><ul><li>to be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Part of current audit file </li></ul><ul><li>Audit Working Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and performing </li></ul><ul><li>audit </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision & review of </li></ul><ul><li>audit work </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of audit </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent and current </li></ul><ul><li>files </li></ul><ul><li>Audit Note Book </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent record </li></ul><ul><li>Any matter observed </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence tool </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of MOA </li></ul><ul><li>& AOA </li></ul><ul><li>Error or fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>representations </li></ul>
  12. 12. AUDIT RISK <ul><li>INHERENT RISK </li></ul><ul><li>No internal controls </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL RISK </li></ul><ul><li>With the present accounting & internal control system, a particular misstatement will not be prevented/detected/corrected on timely basis </li></ul><ul><li>DETECTION RISK </li></ul><ul><li>An auditor’s substantive procedures will not detect an existing misstatement </li></ul>
  13. 13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RISK The shaded areas relate to Detection risk HIGHEST HIGHER MEDIUM LOW HIGHER MEDIUM LOW MEDIUM LOWER MEDIUM LOWER LOWEST HIGH AUDITOR’S ASSESSMENT OF INHERENT RISK MEDIUM HIGH AUDITOR’S ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL RISK
  14. 14. AAS 28- AUDITOR’S REPORT ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS <ul><li>Title- Auditor’s report </li></ul><ul><li>Addressee – appointing authority </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory para </li></ul><ul><li>Scope para </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion para </li></ul><ul><li>Date of report </li></ul><ul><li>Place of signature </li></ul><ul><li>Auditor’s signature </li></ul><ul><li>Unqualified opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified – ‘subject to’ or ‘except for’ </li></ul><ul><li>Disclaimer – not able to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse – misleading/incomplete nature of financial statements </li></ul>
  15. 15. GUIDANCE NOTE ON INDEPENDENCE OF AUDITORS <ul><li>Independence of mind & Independence in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of mind- acting with integrity, professional skepticism & exercise objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Independence in appearance- avoidance of facts & circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Self Interest threats-direct financial interest </li></ul><ul><li>Self Review threats- review of an earlier judgement or conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy threats- promoting client’s opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity threats- close relationship </li></ul>
  16. 16. GUIDANCE NOTE ON 227(3)(e) and (f) of the companies act, 1956 <ul><li>Clause (e) – the auditor’s report shall state in thick type or in italics the observations/comments of the auditors which have any adverse effect on the functioning of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause (f) – whether any director is disqualified from being appointed as director u/s 274(1)(g) </li></ul><ul><li>Defaulting company= public company has not </li></ul><ul><li>filed annual accounts and annual returns for any continuous 3 financial years commencing on/after 1/4/99 or </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to Repay its deposit or interest thereon on due date or redeem its debentures on due date or pay any dividend and such failure continues for one year or more </li></ul>
  17. 17. DIVIDENDS-sec 205 <ul><li>Can be declared out of – current yr profits after depreciation; past yr profits after depn; aggregate of the above; money provided by central/state govt in this behalf </li></ul><ul><li>In view of public interest, the central govt may exempt any company from providing depn before declaring os paying dividends </li></ul><ul><li>Past losses: amt equal to the loss or depn for the year of loss, whichever is less, is set off from the current yr </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Only registered shareholders are entitled to dividend; preference dividend is to be paid before euity dividend </li></ul><ul><li>Dividend in abeyance- sec 206A </li></ul><ul><li>Dividend is payable only in cash </li></ul><ul><li>Must be paid within 30 days from the date of declaration </li></ul>
  19. 20. QUALIFIED OPINION <ul><li>We have audited….. </li></ul><ul><li>Except as discussed in the following paragraph. We conducted our audit in accordance with…… </li></ul><ul><li>We did not observe the counting of the physical inventories as at 31 st march,2008 since that date was prior to the time we were appointed as auditors of X ltd. Owing to the nature of the entity’s records, we were unable to satisfy ourselves as to inventory quantities by other audit procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>In our opinion and to the best of our information and according to the explanations given to us, subject to the effects of such adjustments, if any, as might have been determined to be necessary had we been able to satisfy ourselves as to physical inventory quantities. The financial statements give a……… </li></ul>
  20. 21. ADVERSE OPINION <ul><li>We have audited the attached B/S of…, as at 31 st march…, and also the P & L a/c for the year ended on that date annexed thereto. These financial statements are the responsibility of the mgnt. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. </li></ul><ul><li>We conducted our audit in accordance with… </li></ul><ul><li>In our opinion and to the best of our information and according to the explanations given to us, because of the effects of the matters discussed in the preceding para(s), the financial statements do not give a true and fair view in conformity with the accounting principles generally accepted in India: </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of B/S, of the state of affairs of the company as at </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of P&L a/c, of the profit/loss for the year ended on that date. </li></ul>
  21. 22. DISCLAIMER OF OPINION <ul><li>We were engaged to audit the attached B/S of … as at 31 st march,…. And also P & L a/c for the year ended on that date annexed thereto. These financial statements are the responsibility of the entity’s management. ( Omit the sentence stating the responsibility of the auditor). </li></ul><ul><li>(the para discussing the scope of the audit would either be omitted or amended according to the circumstances) </li></ul><ul><li>(add a para discussing the limitation) </li></ul><ul><li>We were not able to observe all physical inventories and confirm accounts receivable due to limitations placed on the scope of our work by the entity. Because of the significance of the matters discussed in the preceding para, we did not express an opinion on the financial statements </li></ul>
  22. 23. SPECIMEN AUDIT PROGRAMME
  23. 24. <ul><li>Q 1 </li></ul><ul><li>C is partner in ABC Associates, Chartered Accountants. Analyse whether disqualification provisions are attracted in the following cases: </li></ul><ul><li>C is indebted for an amount exceeding Rs 1000. Can C be appointed as an auditor in his individual name? </li></ul><ul><li>The firm is indebted for > 1000. Can C be appointed as an auditor in his individual name? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans </li></ul><ul><li>When a firm is appointed as auditor, each partner is deemed to be so indebted </li></ul><ul><li>When a firm is indebted, each partner is deemed to be so indebted </li></ul><ul><li>In both the cases disqualification will apply </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Q 2 </li></ul><ul><li>At the AGM of navkar ltd, Om is appointed as the auditor. Om refuses to accept the audit. The company holds another general meeting and appoints a new auditor </li></ul>Ans Refusal to accept appointment in the first AGM implies that no auditor has been appointed at the AGM. Therefore central govt has the power to appoint an auditor u/s 224(3)
  25. 26. Q 3 The company recorded on 31.3.04 a sale of goods to the tune of Rs 10000 to A & Co ltd, a sister concern and recognized a profit of Rs 2500. On April 1,2004 a purchase of the goods of the same description amounting to Rs 10000 from A co was found to be recorded.
  26. 27. <ul><li>Ans </li></ul><ul><li>The auditor should enquire whether such transactions are merely book entries and whether such entries are prejudicial to the interests of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case the sale and purchase are intended to boost up the profits. </li></ul><ul><li>The auditor should report the matter to the members </li></ul>
  27. 28. Q 4 which of the following will you include for the purpose of calculation u/s 224(1)(B)? <ul><li>government companies </li></ul><ul><li>Sec 25 companies </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited liability company </li></ul><ul><li>Special audit </li></ul><ul><li>Tax audit </li></ul><ul><li>Joint audit </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign company audit </li></ul><ul><li>Internal audit </li></ul><ul><li>Private company audit </li></ul><ul><li>Branch audit </li></ul><ul><li>Audit of Statutory corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantee companies having no share capital </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>no </li></ul>
  28. 29. Q 5 A newly set up pvt ltd manufacturing company has incurred the following expenditure during its construction period. It intends to capitalize the expenses. Comment <ul><li>Foreign tour expenses of directors for purchasing plant and machinery </li></ul>Expenditure incurred for acquisiton of an asset should be capitalised as a part of the cost of the asset. But if they fail to pruchase the Plant & Machinery it has to be treated as deferred revenue expense and shown under miscellaneous expenses
  29. 30. <ul><li>Non technical staff’s salary during the period of installation of Plant & Machinery </li></ul><ul><li>It represents indirect expenditure related to acquisition/construction and is incidental thereto and should be capitalised as part of acquistion/construction cost. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Other sundry expenses such as Stationery, printing, postage, telephones etc </li></ul><ul><li>Such expenses are also indirectly related the construction and are incidental thereto and therefore it is recommended that the same be capitalised as a part of construction cost . </li></ul>

×