2009 Tomic Koludrovic And Petric Croatia Transition

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2009 Tomic Koludrovic And Petric Croatia Transition

  1. 1. DIVIDED SOCIETIES XII: Building up the Polities; The Balkans IUC Dubrovnik, April 24., 2009 Polity in a Divided Post-Transitional Society: The Case of Croatia Inga Tomić-Koludrović & Mirko Petrić Department of Sociology University of Zadar
  2. 2. Building up the Politi e s ↓ implication = “destroyed” or “weak” / i.e. need to be built/
  3. 3. the “Balkans” ↓ means different things to different people but consensus = that polities there fit the description of “destroyed” or “weak” /historically & at present/
  4. 5. competing terms / geo-political conceptions / the Balkans South East Europe Western Balkans Adriatic Europe former Yugoslavia /+ Albania/ ---------------------- every term tells a story
  5. 8. the “post-socialist” countries?
  6. 9. the keyword = “diversity” ------------------------------------------------ culture religion /traditional matrices/ value systems ethnic composition political systems (now & in the past) levels of economic development ---------------------------------------------- vary across countries, subregions, regions
  7. 10. the post-socialist “transition” ------------------------------------------------ measured by the yardstick of fulfilling EU accession criteria ↓ expressed exclusively in political, economic & legal terms /society & culture = left out / ----------------------------------------------
  8. 11. the post-socialist “transition” ------------------------------------------------ the “Copenhagen criteria” (1993) ↓ (1) t he stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy (2) the existence of the function al market economy (3) the ability of the candidate country to take over the r e s ponsibilit i es of membership Eu Council meeting in Madrid (1995) ↓ (4) the adjusting of the administrative and judiciary structures to fit the EU norms ( s o that the Copenhagen criteria can be successfully implemented )
  9. 12. Croatia = entering “mature transition” ------------------------------------------------ next to a EU member / failed state index country
  10. 13. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ = a post-transitional country ↓ / in social terms / new social arrangements = stabilized after a succession of various sorts of crises
  11. 14. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ 1990s ↓ winners : losers new elites war veterans (political . industrial workers & women economic) youth youth youth . retired people … ……… . youth
  12. 15. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ 2000 - 2009 ↓ exposure to a new kind of risks increasing global integration ------------------------------------------------------------ (started in the second half of the 1990s, but now with visible consequences at the level of everyday life)
  13. 16. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ 1990s ↓  the wars of Yugoslav succession  privatization (“chaotic” / “criminal”) of the former public (“socially owned”) property  “an odd symbiosis of market absolutism and the perception of the ethno-national state as an unmistakable, almost divine entity ” (Katunarić, 1997) ------------------------------------------------------------ - president Tudjman’s vision of 200 Croatian capitalist families
  14. 17. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ second half of the 1990s ↓ successive privatizations banks national telecommunications system entry of foreign media ownership ------------------------------------------------------------
  15. 18. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ 2000 - 2009 ↓ gradual EU integration constant growth of foreign debt ---------------------------------- 1993: 3,5 billion $ 2000 : 10 billion $ 2009 : 37 + billion $
  16. 19. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ accelleration of history ↓ 1992 : nationhood 2011 (projected) : EU membership ---------------------------------  from a “belated nation” to supra-national integration
  17. 20. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ consequences of accelleration ↓ culture lag (& social as well) + unexpected / non-standard outcomes ---------------------------------  indicator : co-existense & confusion of various sets of values (premodern – modern – postmodern)
  18. 21. Croatia ------------------------------------------------ parallel unfolding of two modernities ↓ in Ulrich Beck’s sense of the terms 1st & 2nd modernity simple & reflexive -------------------------------- Tomić-Koludrović (1999  )
  19. 22. . ---------------------------------------------
  20. 23. Croatia --------------------------------------------------- shares with other East European (& ex-YU ) countries ↓ a post-socialist transition in conditions of globalization & liquid modernity (Bauman)
  21. 24. Croatia : specificities --------------------------------------------------- different from other East European countries ↓ Yugoslav-style socialism (openess, freedom to travel, elements of the market-place, consumer goods available, some liberal values ) / positive & negative aspects /
  22. 25. Croatia : specificities --------------------------------------------------- different from other ex-YU countries ↓ “Tradition” (cultural & social, institutional past) + elements of socialist modernization / outcomes of the encounter of such a tradition /
  23. 26. : -
  24. 27. Croatia : values --------------------------------------------------- Yugoslav-wide survey of youth (late 1980s – Communist Party funded) ↓ interpretation of results ( M. Ule , 1988 ) based on R.Inglehart’s survival & self-expression values & U. Beck’s postmaterialist values (ecology), individualist values
  25. 28. Yugoslav-wide youth values survey --------------------------------------------------- postmaterialist & individualist values ↓ Slovenia, Croatia (consistently) + selected cities in N. Serbia (Belgrade – Novi Sad)
  26. 29. Yugoslav-wide youth values survey --------------------------------------------------- the rest of Yugoslavia ↓ traditional values + high on authoritarian index low acceptance of entrepreneurial values
  27. 30. turn of the century Croatia --------------------------------------------------- some students in Zagreb as high on authoritarian index as youth in Kragujevac (Serbia) in the late 1980s survey (the highest in then-Yugoslavia) -------------------------------------------- what happened?
  28. 31. “ transitional” Croatia --------------------------------------------------- the beginning of 1990s – outbreak of war ↓ homogenization , retraditionalization a sort of “counter-secularization” -------------------------------------------- what happened?
  29. 32. Croatia : outcomes of retraditionalization etc --------------------------------------------------- ↓ low generalized trust trust in the institutions of Catholic church = highest but values of church-goers = contradict Catholic morality -------------------------------------------- values : confusion / N.B. not “postmodern sampling” but “divided” within a person /
  30. 33. polity : policy --------------------------------------------------- polity (in senses ranging from “political community” to the unit of an “organized society”) = “destroyed” or “weak” / i.e. needs to be built/ ----------------------------------------------------------- “building up”  policy
  31. 34. polity : community --------------------------------------------------- community (of interest to sociologists) ↓ missing element of identification (Bauman) ----------------------------------------------------------- present in war-time and years of nationalist homogenization now missing
  32. 35. polity --------------------------------------------------- community ↓ political institutions civil society -----------------------------------------------------------
  33. 36. polity --------------------------------------------------- regression to pre-political ↓ socialist legacy + legacy of 1990s nationalism + neo-liberal ideology
  34. 37. building up polities --------------------------------------------------- what is to be done? policy aspects ----------------------------------------- what would you do?

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