Forms of Migrants’   Political Transnationalism: Towards an Operational Typology Simona Kuti,  Institute for Migration   a...
Contents <ul><li>Introduction – transnational ism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d efinitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>criticism ...
Definitions (1) <ul><li>Glick Schiller  et al.   -  transnationalism as  &quot; A New Analytic Framework for Understanding...
Definitions (2) <ul><li>&quot;'transnationalism' broadly  refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or insti...
Definitions (3) <ul><li>&quot;it is preferable to delimit the concept of transnationalism to occupations and activities th...
Meanings of Transnationalism <ul><li>Vertovec  (1999) - transnationalism as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) social morphology (t...
New vs. Old Transnationalism <ul><li>&quot;contemporary transnationalism involves more rapid and denser linkages between i...
Transnational Actors <ul><li>Guarnizo and Smith (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;transnationalism from above&quot; </li>...
Cross-border activities by different types of actors (Portes 2001; 2003) Activities Areas Political  Economic Socio-cultur...
Areas of Transnational Activities <ul><li>Portes  et   al. ,  1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic, political and socio-cul...
Categorisation of individual and community activities by type and   geographical focus  (Al-Ali  et al. , 2001) Home count...
Participation in hometown associations as indicator of: <ul><li>socio-cultural transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itzi...
Political Transnationalism  (1) <ul><li>&quot;wide range of phenomena&quot; (Bauböck, 2003 ) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;very ...
Political Transnationalism  (2) <ul><li>European vs. American perspective (Østergaard-Nielsen, 2001; 2003) </li></ul><ul><...
Definition <ul><li>transnational political practices include &quot;various forms of direct cross - border participation in...
Research <ul><li>&quot;Comparative Immigrant Enterprise Project&quot; - CIEP, 1996-1998 - Colombian, Dominican, and Salvad...
Determinants of Immigrants' Political Transnationalism <ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>marital status  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>participation in transnational economic and political activities  -  exceptional and restricted to a minority of r...
Dichotomies <ul><li>&quot;narrow&quot; and &quot;broad&quot; transnational practices (Itzigsohn  et al. , 1999) </li></ul>...
&quot; Dimensions of narrow and broad transnationality &quot;  (Itzigsohn  et al. , 1999) Transnational practices Narrow B...
&quot;Core&quot; and &quot;expanded&quot; transnationalism <ul><li>activities of &quot; core &quot;  transnationalism </li...
Transnational political activities <ul><li>electoral – non-electoral activities </li></ul><ul><li>direct – indirect partic...
&quot; Dimensions of migrants' transnational political practices&quot; ( Østergaard - Nielsen ,  2003) <ul><li>immigrant p...
E mergence of transnational practices <ul><li>linear transnationalism (Portes, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>reactive transnatio...
Concluding Remarks <ul><li>multilevel political institutional environment of migrants' transnationalism ( Østergaard – Nie...
Concluding Remarks <ul><li>5 types of sending state policies  (Levitt and de la Dehesa,   2003) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bu...
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2009 Kuti Migrants Transnationalism

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2009 Kuti Migrants Transnationalism

  1. 1. Forms of Migrants’ Political Transnationalism: Towards an Operational Typology Simona Kuti, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Zagreb Divided Societies XII: Building up the Polities; The Balkans IUC, Dubrovnik, 20 -2 5 April , 200 9
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction – transnational ism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d efinitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>criticism s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e conomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p olitical etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r esearch ( American vs. European perspective ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determinants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements for an operational typology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n arrow / broad and core/expanded dichotomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form/substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>degree of institutionalisation, focus of activities, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions (1) <ul><li>Glick Schiller et al. - transnationalism as &quot; A New Analytic Framework for Understanding Migration &quot; (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; the processes by which immigrants build social fields that link together their country of origin and their country of settlement. Immigrants who build such fields are designated “ transmigrants ”. Transmigrants develop and maintain multiple relations - familial, economic, social, organizational, religious, and political that span borders. Transmigrants take actions, make decisions, and feel concerns, and develop identities within social networks that connect them to two or more societies simultaneously. &quot; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions (2) <ul><li>&quot;'transnationalism' broadly refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation-states.&quot; ( Vertovec , 1999 ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions (3) <ul><li>&quot;it is preferable to delimit the concept of transnationalism to occupations and activities that require regular and sustained social contacts over time across national borders for their implementation.&quot; (Portes et al. , 1999) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Meanings of Transnationalism <ul><li>Vertovec (1999) - transnationalism as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) social morphology (transnational networks, transnational communities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) type of consciousness (dual or multiple identifications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) mode of cultural reproduction (cultural interpenetration and blending) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) avenue of capital (transnational transactions, TNCs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) site of political engagement (INGOs, TSMOs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6) ( r e)construction of 'place' or locality (translocalities, virtual neighbourhoods) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. New vs. Old Transnationalism <ul><li>&quot;contemporary transnationalism involves more rapid and denser linkages between immigrants and the sending countries&quot; (Itzigsohn, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;For all their significance, early transnational economic and political enterprises were not normative or even common among the vast majority of immigrants, nor were they undergirded by the thick web of regular instantaneous communication and easy personal travel that we encounter today.&quot; ( Portes et al. , 1999 ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transnational Actors <ul><li>Guarnizo and Smith (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;transnationalism from above&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>governments and corporations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;transnationalism from below&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immigrants, grassroots entrepreneurs , activists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cross-border activities by different types of actors (Portes 2001; 2003) Activities Areas Political Economic Socio-cultural International Establishment of embassies and organization of diplomatic missions abroad by national governments. Export drives by farming, ranch, and fishing organizations from a particular country. Travel and exchange programmes organized by universities based on a specific country. Multinational United Nations and other international agencies charged with monitoring and improving specialized areas of global life. Production and marketing activities of global corporations with profits dependent on multiple national markets. Schools and missions sponsored by the Catholic Church and other global religions in multiple countries. Transnational a) Non-governmental associations established to monitor human rights globally. b) Hometown civic associations established by immigrants to improve their sending communities. a) Boycotts organized by grassroots activists in First World countries to compel multinationals to improve their Third World labour practices. b) Enterprises established by immigrants to export/import goods to and from their home countries. a) Grassroots charities promoting the protection and care of children in poorer nations. b) Election of beauty queens and selection of performing groups in immigrant communities to take part in annual hometown festivals.
  10. 10. Areas of Transnational Activities <ul><li>Portes et al. , 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic, political and socio-cultural transnationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Itzigsohn et al. , 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>civil-societal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levitt, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Al-Ali et al. , 2001 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Categorisation of individual and community activities by type and geographical focus (Al-Ali et al. , 2001) Home country focus Host country focus Economic <ul><li>Financial remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Other remittances (e.g. medicine, clothes) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments </li></ul><ul><li>Charitable donations </li></ul><ul><li>Taxe s </li></ul><ul><li>Charitable donations </li></ul><ul><li>Donations to community organisations </li></ul>Political <ul><li>Participation in elections </li></ul><ul><li>Membership of political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Political rallies </li></ul><ul><li>Political demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation of political </li></ul><ul><li>contacts in host country </li></ul>Social <ul><li>Visits to friends and family </li></ul><ul><li>Social contacts </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Social remittances’ </li></ul><ul><li>Membership of social clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Links with other organisations (e.g. religious and other refugee </li></ul><ul><li>organisations) </li></ul><ul><li>- Participation in discussion </li></ul><ul><li>groups (e.g. Internet bulletin </li></ul><ul><li>boards) </li></ul>Cultural - Cultural events including visiting performers from the home country - Events to promote culture (e.g. concerts, theatre, exhibitions) -Education
  12. 12. Participation in hometown associations as indicator of: <ul><li>socio-cultural transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itzigsohn and Saucedo, 2002; Portes, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>civil-societal transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itzigsohn et al. , 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>political transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landolt et al. , 1999; Portes, 2001; Itzigsohn, 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>economic transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertovec, 2004; Portes et al. , 2002 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Political Transnationalism (1) <ul><li>&quot;wide range of phenomena&quot; (Bauböck, 2003 ) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;very dispersed field of inquiry&quot; - includes activities such as transnational election campaigns and cross-border voting, migrants' rallies and demonstrations, engagement in hometown associations' projects in the region of origin (Østergaard-Nielsen, 2003) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Political Transnationalism (2) <ul><li>European vs. American perspective (Østergaard-Nielsen, 2001; 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receiving vs. sending country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>level of analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>top-down vs. bottom-up </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Definition <ul><li>transnational political practices include &quot;various forms of direct cross - border participation in the politics of their country of origin by both migrants and refugees, as well as their indirect participation via the political institutions of the host country &quot; ( Østergaard – Nielsen , 200 1; 200 3) </li></ul><ul><li>the question of mobility </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research <ul><li>&quot;Comparative Immigrant Enterprise Project&quot; - CIEP, 1996-1998 - Colombian, Dominican, and Salvadoran immigrants (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Guarnizo et al . , 2003 : </li></ul><ul><li>t ransnational electoral participation - membership in a political party in the country of origin, monetary contributions to the parties, active involvement in political campaigns in the polity of origin </li></ul><ul><li>t ransnational nonelectoral politics - membership in a hometown civic association, monetary contributions to civic projects in the community of origin, membership in charity organizations sponsoring projects in the home country </li></ul>
  17. 17. Determinants of Immigrants' Political Transnationalism <ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>marital status </li></ul><ul><li>age </li></ul><ul><li>human capital </li></ul><ul><li>social capital </li></ul><ul><li>lenght of U.S. residence </li></ul><ul><li>(Guarnizo et al. , 2003) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>participation in transnational economic and political activities - exceptional and restricted to a minority of relevant populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regular engagement in electoral politics - 9.9 % (15 % - Dominicans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular engagement in nonelectoral politics – 18 % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hometown civic associations - 16.3 % - Salvadorans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Portes, 2001; 2003; Guarnizo et al. 2003; Portes et al. 2002 ) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Dichotomies <ul><li>&quot;narrow&quot; and &quot;broad&quot; transnational practices (Itzigsohn et al. , 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;core&quot; and &quot;expanded&quot; transnationalism (Guarnizo, 2000; Levitt, 2001) </li></ul>
  20. 20. &quot; Dimensions of narrow and broad transnationality &quot; (Itzigsohn et al. , 1999) Transnational practices Narrow Broad High Institutionalization Low Constant Participation Occasional Regular Movement Sporadic
  21. 21. &quot;Core&quot; and &quot;expanded&quot; transnationalism <ul><li>activities of &quot; core &quot; transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>form an integral part of the individual’s habitual life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>undertaken on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patterned and predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>activities of &quot;e xpanded &quot; transnationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engage ment in occasional transnational practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Guarnizo , 2000 ; Levitt, 2001 ) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Transnational political activities <ul><li>electoral – non-electoral activities </li></ul><ul><li>direct – indirect participation </li></ul><ul><li>institutional – confrontational participation </li></ul><ul><li>home – host country focus of activities </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. &quot; Dimensions of migrants' transnational political practices&quot; ( Østergaard - Nielsen , 2003) <ul><li>immigrant politics </li></ul><ul><li>homeland politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emigrant politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diaspora politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>translocal politics </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. E mergence of transnational practices <ul><li>linear transnationalism (Portes, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>reactive transnationalism </li></ul><ul><li>+ resource dependent transnationalism (Itzigsohn and Saucedo, 2002) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>multilevel political institutional environment of migrants' transnationalism ( Østergaard – Nielsen , 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>3 instrumental reasons for the involvement of sending states ( Bauböck , 2003) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human capital upgrading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>r emittances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political lobbying of receiving-country governments </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>5 types of sending state policies (Levitt and de la Dehesa, 2003) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bureaucratic reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investment policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political rights: dual citizenship and external voting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extension of state services abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbolic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>effects of international activities on transnational initiatives and types of responses (Portes) </li></ul><ul><li>migrants' transnational activism a s a constructive phenomenon (Guarnizo et al. , 2003) </li></ul>

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