The Breakup of Yugoslavia:    An International Legal Analysis Eric Fleury
The Conference on Yugoslavia Arbitration Commission  <ul><li>Formed August 27, 1991 by European Community </li></ul><ul><l...
Dissolution v. Secession <ul><ul><li>The commission concluded that Yugoslavia was in a state of dissolution due to the fed...
Uti Possidetis Juris <ul><li>Provides that once an entity has become an independent sovereign state its borders cannot be ...
Badinter Report Rationale <ul><li>Despite lack of differentiation in regard to federal states, on the ground, it was uncle...
Deviation from Deviation: The Dayton Accords <ul><li>Uti Possidetis Juris  invoked, then ignored  </li></ul><ul><li>Standa...
The New Yugoslavia?  <ul><li>Political structure in Bosnia and Herzegovina has similarities to pre-conflict Yugoslavia </l...
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2009 Fleury Badinter

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2009 Fleury Badinter

  1. 1. The Breakup of Yugoslavia: An International Legal Analysis Eric Fleury
  2. 2. The Conference on Yugoslavia Arbitration Commission <ul><li>Formed August 27, 1991 by European Community </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: Five member committee; all five constitutional court judges; Chairman Robert Badinter </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: To give non-binding legal decisions based on public international law </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Greatly deviated from traditional framework of international law </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dissolution v. Secession <ul><ul><li>The commission concluded that Yugoslavia was in a state of dissolution due to the federal government’s inability to maintain effective control without recourse to force and a concurring will of a majority of republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks a principled approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No international legal instrument governing state extinction; only creation (1933 Montevideo Convention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No differentiation between federal and unitary states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills two birds with one stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids self-determination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial integrity of parent state non-issue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Uti Possidetis Juris <ul><li>Provides that once an entity has become an independent sovereign state its borders cannot be altered. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed during the decolonization process in Latin America and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Used simultaneously by commission to establish that individual republics had inviolable borders and to deny Serbia’s claim that Serb populations could secede </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universally applicable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invoked backwards </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Badinter Report Rationale <ul><li>Despite lack of differentiation in regard to federal states, on the ground, it was unclear who could claim to represent Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization of the conflict would stem violence </li></ul><ul><li>Political will of the international community would be sufficient to support new independent states. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Deviation from Deviation: The Dayton Accords <ul><li>Uti Possidetis Juris invoked, then ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Standard discriminating against federal state, federal state implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Despite commission declaration that Serb populations outside Serbia only have minority rights, allows for Republika Serbska to remain an entity </li></ul>
  7. 7. The New Yugoslavia? <ul><li>Political structure in Bosnia and Herzegovina has similarities to pre-conflict Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak centralized federal government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship largely shaped by ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entities within federation along ethnic lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three member Presidency which corresponds to the three constituent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul></ul></ul>

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