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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 9.3 Growth in plants (AHL)

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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 9.3 Growth in plants (AHL)

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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 9.3 Growth in plants (AHL)

  1. 1. https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/- WjkK9THmWQk/VRxnP8OuM4I/AAAAAAAASxk/- 6liOy5a2bs/w506-h675/1066991848.jpeghttps://c1.staticflickr.com/3/2347/2573372542_a959ecfd4f_b.jpg https://bengaltigerc1.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/t opiary.jpeg http://cdn.homedit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/topiary-f1.jpg By Chris Paine https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/ Boxwood, Pivet and Yew are plants commonly used for topiary. Topiary involves both encouraging growth in specific directions by use of frameworks and pruning, amongst other techniques. Though human in origin topiary can be considered a change in the environment that causes a change in growth. 9.3 Growth in plants AHL Essential idea: Plants adapt their growth to environmental conditions.
  2. 2. Understandings, Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 9.3.U1 Undifferentiated cells in the meristems of plants allow indeterminate growth. 9.3.U2 Mitosis and cell division in the shoot apex provide cells needed for extension of the stem and development of leaves. 9.3.U3 Plant hormones control growth in the shoot apex. Auxin is the only named hormone that is expected. 9.3.U4 Plant shoots respond to the environment by tropisms. 9.3.U5 Auxin efflux pumps can set up concentration gradients of auxin in plant tissue. 9.3.U6 Auxin influences cell growth rates by changing the pattern of gene expression. 9.3.A1 Micropropagation of plants using tissue from the shoot apex, nutrient agar gels and growth hormones. 9.3.A2 Use of micropropagation for rapid bulking up of new varieties, production of virus-free strains of existing varieties and propagation of orchids and other rare species.
  3. 3. 9.3.U1 Undifferentiated cells in the meristems of plants allow indeterminate growth. AND 9.3.U2 Mitosis and cell division in the shoot apex provide cells needed for extension of the stem and development of leaves. Growth of a multicellular organism, such as a plant, is produced by either one or a combination of: • Cell enlargement • Increase in cell numbers produced by mitotic cell division Edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/plant-structure-and-growth-ahl
  4. 4. 9.3.U1 Undifferentiated cells in the meristems of plants allow indeterminate growth. AND 9.3.U2 Mitosis and cell division in the shoot apex provide cells needed for extension of the stem and development of leaves.
  5. 5. 9.3.U1 Undifferentiated cells in the meristems of plants allow indeterminate growth. AND 9.3.U2 Mitosis and cell division in the shoot apex provide cells needed for extension of the stem and development of leaves.
  6. 6. 9.3.U3 Plant hormones control growth in the shoot apex. Auxins are a group of hormones that have a wide range of functions in plants including: • root and shoot growth* • Flowering • fruit development • leaf development • wound response http://www4.uwsp.edu/biology/courses/botlab/05IA-b-xl%20ColeusTip.jpg http://plantphys.info/plant_physiology/images/naturalauxins.gif Hormones are molecules produced by one part of an organism and transported to another to affecting physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism. *Depending on it’s concentration auxins can either promote or inhibit growth.
  7. 7. 9.3.U4 Plant shoots respond to the environment by tropisms. http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/aux in.htm Gravitropism (aka Geotropism) is the response to gravity. This response can be both positive and negative. Phototropism interactive animation Gravitropsim tutorials & animations Edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/plant-structure-and-growth-ahl http://leavingbio.net/plant%2 0responses.htm
  8. 8. 9.3.U5 Auxin efflux pumps can set up concentration gradients of auxin in plant tissue. 9.3.U6 Auxin influences cell growth rates by changing the pattern of gene expression. Auxin affects gene expression in shoots: • Cells contain an auxin receptor. • When auxin binds to receptors, transcription of specific genes is promoted. • The expression of these genes causes secretion of hydrogen ions into cell walls. • hydrogen ions loosen connections between cellulose fibres, allowing cell expansion. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/312/5775/858/F1.medium.gif The ways that auxin affect gene expression are varied (e.g. in roots auxin leads to inhibition of growth as opposed to promoting growth in shoots) that and still being researched this is a simple example of one way in which it happens.
  9. 9. 9.3.U5 Auxin efflux pumps can set up concentration gradients of auxin in plant tissue. 9.3.U6 Auxin influences cell growth rates by changing the pattern of gene expression. Different factors can affect transporter proteins and hence the direction in which auxin can move: • The location of transporter proteins can be changed as the plasma membrane is fluid, e.g. efflux transporters can congregate at the top of cells in roots to move auxin upwards • Transporter proteins can be activated and/or inhibited by stimuli such as light http://www.sciencemag.org/content/312/5775/858/F1.medium.gif Concentration gradients of auxin are necessary to control the direction of plant growth. Auxin can enter the cell by: • Diffusion • influx transporter proteins Auxin can move out of the cell by through efflux transporters (called PIN proteins) This requires that auxin is unevenly transported amongst plant tissues.
  10. 10. 9.3.A1 Micropropagation of plants using tissue from the shoot apex, nutrient agar gels and growth hormones. http://longwoodgardens.org/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/66794.jpg http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/a20f41790254c2a e96c013ef544d1f031ad6fc70.jpg Once roots and shoots are developed, the cloned plant can be transferred to soil. Micropropagation is used to produce large numbers of identical plants from stock plants*. *Stock plants possess desired characteristics often derived by selective breeding or genetic modification. Tissues samples# are sterilized and cut into pieces called explants. The least differentiated material, e.g. shoot apex works the best. #This process only work because plant tissues are totipotent. It is important that the media is sterile to prevent the growth of fungi and pathogens. Hormones stimulate plant growth.
  11. 11. http://longwoodgardens.org/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/66794.jpg 9.3.A2 Use of micropropagation for rapid bulking up of new varieties, production of virus-free strains of existing varieties and propagation of orchids and other rare species. • Orchids are prized for their beautiful long lasting flowers exhibiting an incredible range of diversity in size, shape and colour. • It is very difficult to get orchids to breed sexually and to maintain the desired traits • Micropropagation has been so successful that orchids occupy a position as one of the top ten cut flowers Micropropagation is used to produce large numbers of identical plants from stock plants. • Plant virus are transported within the plant through the vascular tissue. • The meristem does not contain vascular tissue • Propagating plants from sterilised vascular tissue produces virus-free plants
  12. 12. Nature of Science: Developments in scientific research follow improvements in analysis and deduction - improvements in analytical techniques allowing the detection of trace amounts of substances has led to advances in the understanding of plant hormones and their effect on gene expression. (1.8) http://www.salk.edu/images/pressrelease/2013/619ecker.jpg.png The interactions between different plant hormones and multiple plant genes are very complex and not fully understood. Our understanding of this area of science is steadily growing due to our ability to detect trace (very small) amounts of molecules.
  13. 13. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Jason de Nys

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