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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 6.1 Digestion and absorption

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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 6.1 Digestion and absorption

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BioKnowledgy Presentation on 6.1 Digestion and absorption

  1. 1. http://medcell.med.yale.edu/systems_cell_biology_old/gi/im ages/small_intestine.jpg http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo250/brush_border.gif http://medcell.med.yale.edu/systems_cell_biology_old /gi/images/ileum.jpg http://medcell.med.yale.edu/systems_cell_biology_ol d/gi/images/villus.jpg Essential idea: The structure of the wall of the small intestine allows it to move, digest and absorb food. 6.1 Digestion and absorption By Chris Paine https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/ 1. Low power light microscope image: cross section of the ileum shows both the folded nature of the inner wall and the outer muscular layers helping to food along and increasing the surface area in contact with digested food. 2. Magnification increased: intricate folded nature of the walls becomes clear. 3. Magnification increased further: an individual villus can be distinguished. The specialised cells are key in both the processes of digestion and absorption, e.g. goblet cells secrete enzymes into the lumen. 4. An electron micrograph at very higher magnification: the microvilli on the surface of a single villus can be seen, they further increase the surface area available for absorption.
  2. 2. Understandings Statement Guidance 6.1.U1 The contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle of the small intestine mixes the food with enzymes and moves it along the gut. 6.1.U2 The pancreas secretes enzymes into the lumen of the small intestine. Students should know that amylase, lipase and an endopeptidase are secreted by the pancreas. The name trypsin and the method used to activate it are not required. 6.1.U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine. Students should know that starch, glycogen, lipids and nucleic acids are digested into monomers and that cellulose remains undigested. 6.1.U4 Villi increase the surface area of epithelium over which absorption is carried out. 6.1.U5 Villi absorb monomers formed by digestion as well as mineral ions and vitamins. 6.1.U6 Different methods of membrane transport are required to absorb different nutrients.
  3. 3. Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 6.1.A1 Processes occurring in the small intestine that result in the digestion of starch and transport of the products of digestion to the liver. 6.1.A2 Use of dialysis tubing to model absorption of digested food in the intestine. 6.1.S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. 6.1.S2 Identification of tissue layers in transverse sections of the small intestine viewed with a microscope or in a micrograph. Tissue layers should include longitudinal and circular muscles, mucosa and epithelium.
  4. 4. 6.1.S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. Use the animation and video to learn about the digestive system and how to draw it. http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/stu dent_view0/chapter26/animation__organs_of_digestion. html https://youtu.be/Nm-pT7fk6gs
  5. 5. 6.1.S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. Plus add in the accessory organs: the gall bladder, liver and pancreas.
  6. 6. 6.1.S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system.
  7. 7. 6.1.S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. Now add the annotations to show what happens in digestion.
  8. 8. 6.1.U1 The contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle of the small intestine mixes the food with enzymes and moves it along the gut. Therefore in the intestines the food is moved very slowly to allow time for digestion. Peristalsis moves food through the alimentary canal In the small intestine peristalsis also mixes food with enzymes and forces the products of digesiton into contact with the wall of the intestine 1. Contraction of longitudinal muscle expand the lumen in front of the food giving it space to move into. 2. Contraction of circular muscles behind the food propels it forwards. n.b. The contractions are controlled unconsciously by the enteric nervous system http://www.austincc.edu/rfofi/NursingRvw/NursingPics/DigestivePics/Picture4.jpg http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/scie nce/add_edexcel/common_systems/digestionre v2.shtml
  9. 9. 6.1.U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine.
  10. 10. Review: 2.5.U1 Enzymes have an active site to which specific substrates bind. AND 2.5.U2 Enzyme catalysis involves molecular motion and the collision of substrates with the active site. Enzyme: A globular protein that increases the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy threshold (i.e. a biological catalyst) http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/biology1111/animations/enzyme.swf Use the animation to find out more about enzymes and how they work. A good alternative is How Enzymes Work from McGraw and Hill http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.html
  11. 11. 6.1.U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine.
  12. 12. 6.1.U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine. Human Digestive Enzymes Remember: enzymes are specific to their substrates and each enzyme has its own optimum pH. Three main types of enzymes in human digestion: Amylases break down carbohydrates Example: salivary amylase Substrate: starch Product: maltose Source: mouth (salivary glands) Optimum pH: 7-7.8 Proteases break down polypeptides Example: pepsin Substrate: polypeptides Product: amino acids Source: stomach Optimum pH: 2 Lipases break down fats and lipids Example: pancreatic lipase Substrate: triglycerides Product: fatty acids & glycerol Source: pancreas, delivered into small intestine Optimum pH: 7.2 - 7.5 diagram from: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/digestive-system/printable/57730.html
  13. 13. 6.1.U2 The pancreas secretes enzymes into the lumen of the small intestine. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_showing_the_position_of_the_pancreas_CRUK_356.svg The pancreas synthesises the three main types of digestive enzyme: • amylase to digest carbohydrates, e.g. starch • lipases to digest lipids, e.g. triglycerides • proteases to digest polypeptides Pancreatic juice containing the enzymes is released into the upper region of the small intestine (duodenum) via the pancreatic duct The small intestine is where the final stages of digestion occur.
  14. 14. 6.1.S2 Identification of tissue layers in transverse sections of the small intestine viewed with a microscope or in a micrograph. The small intestine contains four distinct tissue layers from the lumen http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Histo/lab_5/GI/DMS132/popup.html Muscular layer longitudinal circular Mucosa – inner lining, includes villi Submucosa – connective tissue (between the mucosa and muscle) Muscular layer – inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle perform peristalsis Serosa – protective outer layer Epithelial cells – single outer layer of cells on each villus (see 6.1.U4)
  15. 15. 6.1.U4 Villi increase the surface area of epithelium over which absorption is carried out. Adaptations to Absorption Getting digested food molecules into the blood from the lumen of the ileum. Single-cell layer of epithelial cells Short path for diffusion. Capillaries close to epithelium Short path for diffusion, rich supply of blood. Lacteals (lymph vessels) Allow for rapid absorption and transport of lipids. Rich blood supply Maintains concentration gradients between lumen and blood. Many villi protrude into the lumen, greatly increasing the surface area for absorption. Images from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intestinal_villi Microvilli on the surface of each cell increase surface area even further.
  16. 16. 6.1.U5 Villi absorb monomers formed by digestion as well as mineral ions and vitamins. https://youtu.be/P1sDOJM65Bc Along with vitamins and minerals all products of digestion (monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids & glycerol) are absorbed by the villi
  17. 17. 6.1.U6 Different methods of membrane transport are required to absorb different nutrients. Method of transport Nutrients Outline Simple diffusion Lipids Fructose, vitamins Water-soluble (hydrophilic) molecules use channel proteins to pass phospholipid bilayer and enter the epithelial cells (down the concentration gradient) Active Transport Endocytosis (Pinocytosis) Antibodies from breast milk How is membrane transport involved in absorption of nutrients from the small intestine?
  18. 18. 6.1.U6 Different methods of membrane transport are required to absorb different nutrients. Method of transport Nutrients Outline Simple diffusion Lipids Lipids are non-polar and therefore can pass freely through hydrophobic core of the plasma membrane into the epithelial cells (down the concentration gradient ) Facilitated Diffusion Fructose, vitamins Water-soluble (hydrophilic) molecules use channel proteins to pass phospholipid bilayer and enter the epithelial cells (down the concentration gradient) Active Transport Glucose, amino acids and mineral ions Protein pumps use ATP to move molecules against the concentration gradient into the epithelial cells Endocytosis (Pinocytosis) Antibodies from breast milk The plasma membrane folds inward to form vesicles to absorb larger molecules without digesting them How is membrane transport involved in absorption of nutrients from the small intestine?
  19. 19. 6.1.A1 Processes occurring in the small intestine that result in the digestion of starch and transport of the products of digestion to the liver. http://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/1_200907180843167cXQr.gif Starch consists of amylose (by 1,4 bonds) and amylopectin (by 1,4 bonds and occasional by 1,6 bonds) Amylase breaks 1,4 bonds in chains of four or more monomers producing maltose Dextrinase breaks the 1,6 bonds that amylase cannot deal with forming glucose monomers Maltase digests maltose into glucose monomers
  20. 20. 6.1.A1 Processes occurring in the small intestine that result in the digestion of starch and transport of the products of digestion to the liver. The digested glucose is absorbed and then transported to various body tissues 1. Glucose is co-transported* with sodium ions into the epithelial cells (of the villus). 2. Glucose moves by facilitated diffusion into the lumen of the villus. 3. Glucose then diffuses a short distance into the adjacent capillaries where it dissolves into the blood plasma. 4. Blood in the capillaries moves to to venules then to the hepatic portal vein which transports the glucose to the liver. 5. The liver absorbs excess glucose which it converts to glycogen for storage. http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Membranes/bauerp/co.gif Extension: co-transport of glucose is a form of active transport. Explain why using the diagram above.
  21. 21. 6.1.A2 Use of dialysis tubing to model absorption of digested food in the intestine. http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical- biology/evaluating-visking-tubing-model-gut Dialysis (visking) tubing can be used to model absorption The tubing is semi-permeable and contains pores typically ranging 1 – 10 nm in diameter Initially contains a mixture of starch and glucose Test the solutions inside and outside the dialysis tubing for starch and glucose before and after at least 15 minutes have elapsed (see the Practical Biology link for details). Predict what will happen to the glucose and starch after 15 minutes.
  22. 22. Nature of Science: Use models as representations of the real world - dialysis tubing can be used to model absorption in the intestine. (1.10) http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical- biology/evaluating-visking-tubing-model-gut Dialysis (visking) tubing can be used to model absorption The tubing is semi-permeable and contains pores typically ranging 1 – 10 nm in diameter Initially contains a mixture of starch and glucose Test the solutions inside and outside the dialysis tubing for starch and glucose before and after at least 15 minutes have elapsed (see the Practical Biology link for details). Predict what will happen to the glucose and starch after 15 minutes.
  23. 23. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Bob Smullen

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