Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

BioKnowledgy Presentation on 11.2 movement (AHL)

26,814 views

Published on

BioKnowledgy Presentation on 11.2 movement (AHL)

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

BioKnowledgy Presentation on 11.2 movement (AHL)

  1. 1. Essential idea: The roles of the musculoskeletal system are movement, support and protection. 11.2 Movement By Chris Paine https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/ The rigid nature of bone both supports and protects organs within the body. It also gives a structure for muscles to pull, by their contraction, to create movement. http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/DM- Resize/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/39/211/dv385032.jpg?w=600&h=
  2. 2. Understandings Statement Guidance 11.2.U1 Bones and exoskeletons provide anchorage for muscles and act as levers. 11.2.U2 Synovial joints allow certain movements but not others. 11.2.U3 Movement of the body requires muscles to work in antagonistic pairs. 11.2.U4 Skeletal muscle fibres are multinucleate and contain specialized endoplasmic reticulum. 11.2.U5 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils. 11.2.U6 Each myofibril is made up of contractile sarcomeres. 11.2.U7 The contraction of the skeletal muscle is achieved by the sliding of actin and myosin filaments. 11.2.U8 ATP hydrolysis and cross bridge formation are necessary for the filaments to slide. 11.2.U9 Calcium ions and the proteins tropomyosin and troponin control muscle contractions.
  3. 3. Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 11.2.A1 Antagonistic pairs of muscles in an insect leg. 11.2.S1 Annotation of a diagram of the human elbow. Elbow diagram should include cartilage, synovial fluid, joint capsule, named bones and named antagonistic muscles. 11.2.S2 Drawing labelled diagrams of the structure of a sarcomere. Drawing labelled diagrams of the structure of a sarcomere should include Z lines, actin filaments, myosin filaments with heads, and the resultant light and dark bands. 11.2.S3 Analysis of electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibres. Measurement of the length of sarcomeres will require calibration of the eyepiece scale of the microscope.
  4. 4. 11.2.U1 Bones and exoskeletons provide anchorage for muscles and act as levers.
  5. 5. 11.2.A1 Antagonistic pairs of muscles in an insect leg. https://www.st- andrews.ac.uk/~wjh/jumping/legwrk.htm Grasshoppers (Acrididae) are insects, and insects have a skeleton on the outside of the body called an exoskeleton. The muscles are inside the hard shell. The back leg is much longer than the others to aid jumping. Long legs increase the distance over which the jumper can push on the ground. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acrididae_grasshopper-2.jpg The two main muscles inside are the extensor tibiae muscle which contracts to extends the leg, and the flexor tibiae muscle which contracts to flex the leg. These muscles pull on tendons which are attached to the tibia on either side of the joint pivot. Skeletal muscles, such as the extensor and flexor that occur in pairs are often antagonistic: when one contracts the other relaxes to produce controlled movement in opposite directions.
  6. 6. 11.2.U3 Movement of the body requires muscles to work in antagonistic pairs. https://youtu.be/SOMFX_83sqk http://purchon.com/flash/elbow.swf The triceps and biceps are working in opposite directions and hence are examples of antagonistic muscles.
  7. 7. Can you annotate the structures? Remember structure dictates function Structure Function Biceps Triceps Humerus Radius / Ulna Cartilage Synovial fluid Joint capsule Tendons Ligaments 11.2.S1 Annotation of a diagram of the human elbow.
  8. 8. Can you annotate the structures? Remember structure dictates function Structure Function Biceps Bends the arm (flexor) Triceps Straightens the arm (extensor) Humerus Anchors the muscle (muscle origin) Radius / Ulna Acts as forearm levers (muscle insertion) – radius for the biceps, ulna for the triceps Cartilage Smooth surface to allow easy movement, absorbs shock and distributes load Synovial fluid Provides lubrication, reduces friction in the joint. Joint capsule Seals the joint, contains the synovial fluid. Tendons non-elastic tissue connecting muscle to bone Ligaments non-elastic tissue connecting bone to bone 11.2.S1 Annotation of a diagram of the human elbow.
  9. 9. 11.2.U2 Synovial joints allow certain movements but not others. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Knie_ ct.gif
  10. 10. 11.2.U2 Synovial joints allow certain movements but not others. https://youtu.be/SOMFX_83sqk
  11. 11. 11.2.U2 Synovial joints allow certain movements but not others. http://www.midsouthorthopedics.com/education.htm http://www.mananatomy.com/basic-anatomy/synovial- joints More about synovial joints: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/human body/body/factfiles/joints/saddle_joint .shtm
  12. 12. 11.2.U4 Skeletal muscle fibres are multinucleate and contain specialized endoplasmic reticulum. AND 11.2.U5 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils. A single skeletal muscle cell is multinucleated, with nuclei positioned along the edges Many mitochondria are present due to the high demand for ATP edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement Muscle fibre cells are held together by the plasma membrane referred to as the sarcolemma.
  13. 13. Muscle cells contain sarcoplasmic reticulum, a specialised type of endoplasmic reticulum*, that stores calcium ions and pumps them out into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated. * Remember (from 1.2 Ultrastructure of cells) that normal endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes molecules. 11.2.U4 Skeletal muscle fibres are multinucleate and contain specialized endoplasmic reticulum. AND 11.2.U5 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils. edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement Muscle fibre cells are held together by the plasma membrane referred to as the sarcolemma.
  14. 14. Myofibrils are the basic rod-like contractile units with a muscle cells. Myofibrils are grouped together inside muscle cells, which are known as muscle fibres. 11.2.U4 Skeletal muscle fibres are multinucleate and contain specialized endoplasmic reticulum. AND 11.2.U5 Muscle fibres contain many myofibrils. edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement
  15. 15. 11.2.U6 Each myofibril is made up of contractile sarcomeres. http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animati ons/content/muscle.html http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/2688/2752944/Web_Tu torials/25_A01.swf edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement
  16. 16. 11.2.S2 Drawing labelled diagrams of the structure of a sarcomere.
  17. 17. 11.2.U7 The contraction of the skeletal muscle is achieved by the sliding of actin and myosin filaments. http://highered.mheducation.com/olc/dl/12 0104/bio_b.swf edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement
  18. 18. 11.2.U8 ATP hydrolysis and cross bridge formation are necessary for the filaments to slide. AND 11.2.U9 Calcium ions and the proteins tropomyosin and troponin control muscle contractions. http://highered.mheducation.com//site s/dl/free/0072495855/291136/myofila ment.swf http://highered.mheducation.com/si tes/dl/free/0072495855/291136/Bre akdwnDrngCntrctn.swf edited from: http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/muscles-and-movement
  19. 19. 11.2.S3 Analysis of electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibres.
  20. 20. 11.2.S3 Analysis of electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibres. http://darwin.wcupa.edu/beneski/bio-515/f12/westervelt/Main/ImageAnalysis?p=2 Electron micrograph of human skeletal muscle 1μm Analyse the micrograph and use it to answer the following: 1. Deduce whether the myofibrils are contracted or relaxed 2. Calculate the magnification of the electron micrograph 3. Measuring an individual sarcomere accurately is difficult due to their small size. Commonly scientists use the formula below: = total length of n sacromeres n a. Measure the total length of five sarcomere from z-line to z-line b. Calculate the mean length of a sarcomere mean sarcomere length (μm)
  21. 21. Nature of science: Developments in scientific research follow improvements in apparatus - fluorescent calcium ions have been used to study the cyclic interactions in muscle contraction. (1.8) aequorin and the fluorescent dyes used in research only emit for a few short nano-seconds making them ideal to measure the rapid movements found in muscle cells. https://www.uic.edu/classes/phyb/phyb516/BaranyUpdate4/Regulatio nofMuscleContraction/RegulationofMuscleContraction.htmlhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aequorin_1EJ3.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki /File:Aequorea4.jpg Ashley and Ridgway (1968) were the first to study the role that Calcium ions (Ca2+) plays in the coupling of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Their work was made possibly by the use of aequorin, a Ca2+ binding bioluminescent protein. Upon Ca2+- binding aequorin emits light. The timing of light emission peaks between the arrival of an electrical impulse at the muscle fibre and the contraction of the muscle fibre. This is consistent with theory of release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum The light emissions are detected and recorded using specially adapted microscopes and cameras. Deduce the structure of aequorin from the molecular visualization. A number of researchers have used fluorescent dyes to visualise and measure the movement of myosin and actin.
  22. 22. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Bob Smullen

×