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BioKnowledgy DP 6.4 Gas exchange notes - bottom line


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BioKnowledgy DP 6.4 Gas exchange notes - bottom line

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BioKnowledgy DP 6.4 Gas exchange notes - bottom line

  1. 1. 6 Human Physiology – 6.4 Gas exchange Name: (Chris Paine) 6.4 Gas exchange - the bottom line The learning Statements The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and communicate your understanding. 6.4.U1 Ventilation maintains concentration gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air in alveoli and blood flowing in adjacent capillaries. Can you distinguish between gas exchange and ventilation? Can you state the location of gas exchange in humans? Can you draw a simple diagram showing the structure of an alveolus and an adjacent capillary? Can you outline how ventilation maintains a concentration gradient between the aveoili air and the blood? 6.4.U4 Air is carried to the lungs in the trachea and bronchi and then to the alveoli in bronchioles. Outline the flow of air into the lungs. Can you produce a flow chart to show the passage of air from outside into the lungs ending with the alveoli? 6.4.A3 External and internal intercostal muscles, and diaphragm and abdominal muscles as examples of antagonistic muscle action. AND 6.4.U5 Muscle contraction causes the pressure changes inside the thorax that force air in and out of the lungs to ventilate them. AND 6.4.U6 Different muscles are required for inspiration and expiration because muscles only do work when they contract. Can you outline the direction of movement of the diaphragm and rib-cage during inspiration and expiration? Can you link volume changes in the thorax to muscle contraction and relaxation of the external intercostal, internal intercostal, diaphragm and abdominal muscles? Can you explain why the external vs. internal intercostal muscles (and similarly the diaphragm vs. abdominal muscles) are regarded as being antagonistic? Can you suggest advantages of antagonistic muscles have over unpaired muscles? Can you state the relationship between gas pressure and volume? Can you outline how a pressure change leads to the flow of air into (inspiration) and out of (expiration) the lungs? 6.4.U2 Type I pneumocytes are extremely thin alveolar cells that are adapted to carry out gas exchange. AND 6.4.U3 Type II pneumocytes secrete a solution containing surfactant that creates a moist surface inside the alveoli to prevent the sides of the alveolus adhering to each other by reducing surface tension. Can you outline the structure and function of type I pneumocytes? Can you outline the structure and function of type II pneumocytes? Can you explain how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange? Can you explain why the alveoli do not collapse during expiration? 6.4.A2 Causes and consequences of emphysema. Can you outline the causes of emphysema? Can you state the symptoms of emphysema? Can you outline reasons why gas exchange and ventilation are less effective in people with emphysema? 6.4.A1 Causes and consequences of lung cancer. Can you outline the causes of lung cancer? Can you list symptoms of lung cancer?
  2. 2. (Chris Paine) Nature of science: Obtain evidence for theories - epidemiological studies have contributed to our understanding of the causes of lung cancer. (1.8) Can you define epidemiology? Can you outline how epidemiology has improved our understanding the association between smoking and lung cancer? Can you suggest the limitations of the evidence produced by epidemiological studies? 6.4.S1 Monitoring of ventilation in humans at rest and after mild and vigorous exercise. (Practical 6) Identify the manipulated and responding variables in a test of the effect of exercise on ventilation. Can you outline techniques for measuring breathing rate and tidal lung volume? Can you calculate the ventilation rate from the breathing rate and tidal lung volume? Recommended resources Allott, Andrew. Biology: Course Companion. S.l.: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.