BioKnowledgy DP 6.3 & 11.1 Immunology notes - bottom line
6 Human Physiology and 11 Animal physiology (AHL) – the immune response
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6.3 Defence against infectious disease & 11.1 Antibody production and vaccination - the
The learning Statements
The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum
expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and
communicate your understanding.
6.3.U1 The skin and mucous membranes form a primary defence against pathogens that cause
infectious disease. AND 11.1.U2 Pathogens can be species-specific although others can cross species
Can you list the properties possesses by mucus membranes and skin that help to prevent infection?
Can you define what a pathogen is?
Can you give examples of viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens?
Can you give examples of pathogens that are only known to infect to humans?
Can you give examples of pathogens that can infect other species as well as humans?
Can you list the common ways that pathogens can enter the body?
6.3.U2 Cuts in the skin are sealed by blood clotting. AND 6.3.U3 Clotting factors are released from
platelets. AND 6.3.U4 The cascade results in the rapid conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.
After a wound has broken the skin can you outline all the steps that lead to the formation of a clot?
6.3.A1 Causes and consequences of blood clot formation in coronary arteries.
Can you explain why a clot might occur in a coronary artery?
Can you briefly explain why and how a clot blocking a coronary artery would affect heart function?
6.3.U5 Ingestion of pathogens by phagocytic white blood cells gives non-specific immunity to diseases.
Can you draw and label a phagocyte?
Can you outline the non-specific immune response carried out by phagocytes?
11.1.U1 Every organism has unique molecules on the surface of its cells.
Can you describe what an antigen is?
6.3.U6 Production of antibodies by lymphocytes in response to particular pathogens gives specific
immunity. AND 11.1.U3 B lymphocytes are activated by T lymphocytes in mammals. AND 11.1.U4
Activated B cells multiply to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells. AND 11.1.U5 Plasma cells
secrete antibodies. AND 11.1.U6 Antibodies aid the destruction of pathogens. AND 11.1.U9 Immunity
depends upon the persistence of memory cells.
Can you outline antigen presentation and T lymphocyte activation?
Can you outline B lymphocyte activation?
Can you outline Plasma cell and antibody production?
Can list the four ways in which antibodies can affect the pathogen?
Can you outline how the formation of memory cells leads to immunity?
11.1.A3 Antigens on the surface of red blood cells stimulate antibody production in a person with a different
Can you explain why a person with O blood can only receive blood from others with O blood?
Can you explain why a person with AB blood is able to receive a blood donation from a person with any
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11.1.U9 Immunity depends upon the persistence of memory cells. AND 11.1.U10 Vaccines contain
antigens that trigger immunity but do not cause the disease.
Can do describe what is can be in a vaccine and how it can be administered?
Can you outline how a vaccination leads to immunity?
Can you explain why vaccinations often consist of more than a single treatment?
Can you explain why booster shots are needed periodically after the original vaccination?
11.1.A1 Smallpox was the first infectious disease of humans to have been eradicated by vaccination.
Can you state what type of pathogen causes smallpox?
Can you give reasons why other vaccination programmes have not been as successful?
Nature of science: Consider ethical implications of research - Jenner tested his vaccine for smallpox on a
Can you outline the important modern ethical concerns of testing drugs/treatments/vaccinations on humans
and how Jenner’s trials would be in breach of these concerns?
11.1.S1 Analysis of epidemiological data related to vaccination programmes.
Can you analyse epidemiological data to spot trends and suggest underlying reasons?
11.1.U7 White cells release histamine in response to allergens.
11.1.U8 Histamines cause allergic symptoms.
Can you define a histamine?
Can you explain the role of histamines in aiding the immune response?
Can you list the symptoms associated with an allergic response?
Can you briefly explain why allergens cause histamine to be released and why this leads to an allergic
6.3.U7 Antibiotics block processes that occur in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells. AND 6.3.U8
Viruses lack a metabolism and cannot therefore be treated with antibiotics. Some strains of bacteria have
evolved with genes that confer resistance to antibiotics and some strains of bacteria have multiple
Can you list the ways in which antibiotics interfere with prokaryotic bacteria?
Can you explain why antibiotics do not affect humans in the same ways as bacteria?
Can you explain why viruses cannot be affected by antibiotics?
6.3.A2 Florey and Chain’s experiments to test penicillin on bacterial infections in mice. AND Nature of
science: Risks associated with scientific research - Florey and Chain’s tests on the safety of penicillin would
not be compliant with current protocol on testing. (4.8)
Can you briefly outline Florey and Chain’s experiments to test penicillin using mice as subjects?
Can you give reasons why their experiments would not be considered safe practice in modern medicine?
11.1.U11 Fusion of a tumour cell with an antibody-producing plasma cell creates a hybridoma cell. AND
11.1.U12 Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridoma cells. AND 11.1.A2 Monoclonal antibodies to
HCG are used in pregnancy test kits.
Can you outline the production of monoclonal antibodies?
Can you briefly explain why pregnancy tests look for the presence of HCG?
Can you outline how monoclonal antibodies can be used in pregnancy tests to detect the presence of HGC?
6.3.A3 Effects of HIV on the immune system and methods of transmission.
Can you outline how HIV affects the immune system and how this in turn leads to secondary infections?
Can you list the key/most important methods of transmission of HIV?