BioKnowledgy DP 6.6 hormones homeostasis and reproduction notes - bottom line
6 Human Physiology – 6.6 Hormones, homeostasis and reproduction
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6.6 Hormones, homeostasis and reproduction - the bottom line
The learning Statements
The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum
expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and
communicate your understanding.
6.6.U1 Insulin and glucagon are secreted by beta and alpha cells of the pancreas respectively to control
blood glucose concentrations.
Can you explain the control of blood glucose concentration with reference to glucagon, insulin alpha cells,
beta cells and the pancreas?
6.6.A1 Causes and treatment of Type I and Type II diabetes.
Can you distinguish between the causes and effects of type I and type II diabetes?
Can you distinguish between the treatment of type I and type II diabetes?
6.6.U2 Thyroxin is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the metabolic rate and help control body
Can you state the organ of secretion and the target of thyroxin?
Can you outline the main roles of thyroxin?
6.6.U3 Leptin is secreted by cells in adipose tissue and acts on the hypothalamus of the brain to inhibit
Can you state the tissue of secretion and the target of leptin?
Can you outline the main effect of leptin?
6.6.A2 Testing of leptin on patients with clinical obesity and reasons for the failure to control the disease.
Can you outline the discovery of the ob/ob mice and how this linked to the role of leptin?
Can you outline why the trial to treat obese humans with leptin failed?
6.6.U4 Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland to control circadian rhythms.
Can you state the meaning of the term circadian rhythm?
Can you state the organ of secretion and the target of melatonin?
Can you list the effects Melatonin has upon our bodies?
6.6.A3 Causes of jet lag and use of melatonin to alleviate it.
State symptoms of jet lag.
Can you state the cause of jet lag and list the symptoms experienced by sufferers?
Can you describe how melatonin could be used to treat or lessen the effects of jet lag?
6.6.U5 A gene on the Y chromosomes causes embryonic gonads to develop as testes and secretes
Can you describe the role of the SRY gene and the protein it synthesises in the role of gonad development?
6.6.U6 Testosterone causes pre-natal development of male genitalia and both sperm production and
development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.
Can you state the source of testosterone in embryonic males?
Can you outline the role of testosterone in prenatal development of male genitalia?
Can you state role of testosterone in stimulating the primary sexual characteristic of males?
Can you list the secondary sexual characteristics triggered by testosterone at puberty?
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6.6.U7 Estrogen and progesterone cause pre-natal development of female reproductive organs and female
secondary sexual characteristics during puberty.
Can you state the source of testosterone in embryonic females?
Can you outline the role of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone in prenatal development of female
Can you state role of estrogen and progesterone in stimulating the primary sexual characteristic of females?
Can you list the secondary sexual characteristics triggered by estrogen and progesterone at puberty?
6.6.S1 Annotate diagrams of the male and female reproductive system to show names of structures and
Can you label a diagram of the female reproductive system, including the ovary, uterus, endometrium
bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, cervix and fallopian tubes?
Can you outline the function of the ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, endometrium, cervix, vagina?
Can you label a diagram of the male reproductive system, including the bladder, Vas deferens,
penis/erectile tissue, urethra, testis, scrotum, epididymis, prostate gland and seminal vesicle?
Can you outline the function of the testis, scrotum, epididymis, Vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate
gland, urethra and penis?
6.6.U8 The menstrual cycle is controlled by negative and positive feedback mechanisms involving ovarian
and pituitary hormones.
Can you outline events occurring in ovary and uterus during the the menstrual cycle.
Can you state the source and primary target and role of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinising
hormone), estrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle?
Can you annotate graph of the menstrual cycle, identifying hormones, naming structures and describing
changes in the uterus and the ovary?
Can you outline the interactions (positive and negative feedback) of FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone to
explain how the hormones work together to regulate the menstrual cycle?
6.6.A4 The use of IVF of drugs to suspend the normal secretion of hormones, followed by the use of artificial
doses of hormones to induce superovulation and establish a pregnancy.
Can you define In vitro fertilization (IVF)?
Can you list reasons why the process is necessary for some couples?
Can you outline the process of IVF with reference to down-regulation, superovulation, egg collection,
fertilisation and implantation?
6.6.A5 William Harvey’s investigation of sexual reproduction in deer. and 6.6. NOS Developments in
scientific research follow improvements in apparatus - William Harvey was hampered in his observational
research into reproduction by lack of equipment. The microscope was invented 17 years after his death.
Can you state the ‘seed and soil’ theory of Aristotle that was held to be truth before William Harvey’s
Can you state the main method of William Harvey’s investigation of sexual reproduction?
Can you state the conclusions he reached?
Can you explain why Harvey was limited in his ability to arrive at a valid conclusion?
Allott, Andrew. Biology: Course Companion. S.l.: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.