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BioKnowledgy DP 2.4 Proteins - bottom line

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BioKnowledgy DP 2.4 Proteins - bottom line

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BioKnowledgy DP 2.4 Proteins - bottom line

  1. 1. 2 Molecular biology – 2.4 Proteins Name: http://www.bioknowledgy.info/ (Chris Paine) 2.4 Proteins - the bottom line The learning Statements The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and communicate your understanding. 2.4.U1 Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides. AND 2.4.S1 Drawing molecular diagrams to show the formation of a peptide bond. Can you draw a diagram to show polypeptide formation from amino acids, including peptide bonds and annotations to show why it these are condensation reactions? Can you distinguish between the terms dipeptide and polypeptide? 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. Can you state the number of amino acids used by ribosomes to synthesise polypeptides. Can you outline an example of post-polypeptide synthesis modification of amino acids that further increases the number of amino acids found in organisms? 2.4.U3 Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides. Can you state the three factors that give rise to the near infinite number of possible polypeptides? Can you calculate the possible number of different polypeptides formed from n amino acids bonded together? 2.4.U4 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes. Can you outline protein synthesis and the relationship between genes (DNA) and polypeptides? Nature of science: Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies - most but not all organisms assemble proteins from the same amino acids. (3.1) Can you explain what is meant when DNA is described as the universal genetic code? Can you deduce a possible explanation for the universal nature of genetic code? 2.4.U6 The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein. AND 2.4.U5 A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together. Can you state what parts of the polypeptide are responsible for the 3-d shape that the protein takes? Can you state that proteins may consist of a single or multiple polypeptides and give an example of a protein formed from multiple polypeptides? 2.4.U7 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions. Can you compare and contrast globular and fibrous proteins? Can you explain why globular proteins are often soluble, but fibrous proteins are rarely so? Can you list and describe the main functions of proteins within organisms? 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions.
  2. 2. http://www.bioknowledgy.info/ (Chris Paine) Can you briefly outline the structure and function of rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk? 2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome. Can you define the term genome? Can you define the term proteome? Can you outline the two main factors that influence the proteome and explain why it varies even between identical twins? Can you explain why the proteome is larger than the genome? 2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Can you explain how proteins denature? Can you state that denaturing in most proteins is a permanent change? Can you state the two main factors that can proteins to denature? Can you describe an investigation to determine the temperature stability of albumin? Recommended resources http://www.bioknowledgy.info/24-proteins.html Allott, Andrew. Biology: Course Companion. S.l.: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.

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